# Data Sense: An Introduction to Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

Author(s): Barton Poulson

Edition: 1

Pages: 142

Details: eBook w/Data Sense Site Access | 180 days |

Data Sense: An Introduction to Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences is fundamentally about data analysis. It uses common methods of gathering and analyzing data which allows students to construct stories about people. This text is accompanied by a set of over seventy professionally produced lecture videos. These videos are designed to explain and illustrate the concepts and techniques in this book in the most effective and concise way possible. In addition, the videos are optimized for viewing on mobile devices, so you can take your learning with you anywhere.

Chapter 1 Introduction
Data Analysis as Storytelling
Giving Support to Stories with Data
Theory in Data Analysis and Storytelling
Why Storytelling and Theory Matter
All Stories are Ultimately Wrong
Purposes of Analysis
Some Terminology
Univariate Descriptions
Association (i.e., Bivariate/Multivariate Descriptions)
Causality
Warning: Cause-and-Effect Is Harder Than You Think
Levels of Measurement
Categorical Variables
Quantitative Variables

Chapter 2 Distributions
Introduction to Distributions
New Terms
Frequency Distribution Tables
Bar Charts
Pie Charts
Problems with Pie Charts
Boxplots
Tools for Making Boxplots
Histograms
Shape
Modes
Skewness
Kurtosis

Chapter 3 Central Tendency
Introduction
Distributions with Different Centers
Contents
The Mode
Calculating the Mode
Example of the Mode with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the Mode with an Outlier
Example of the Mode with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
The Median
Example of the Median with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the Median with an Outlier
Example of the Median with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
The Mean
Calculating the Mean for a Population
Calculating the Mean for a Sample
Example of the Mean with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the Mean with an Outlier
Example of the Mean with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
Relationship of the Measures in Skewed Distributions

Chapter 4 Variability
Introduction
Distributions with Different Variability
Effects of Variability
The Range
Example of the Range with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the Range with an Outlier
Example of the Range with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
Evaluating the Range
Quartiles: The “Five-Number Summary” and the Interquartile Range (IQR)
Example of the IQR with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the IQR with an Outlier
Example of the IQR with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
Evaluating the IQR
Degrees of Freedom (df)
The Standard Deviation and Variance
Calculating the Population Variance
Calculating the Population Standard Deviation
Calculating the Sample Variance
Calculating the Sample Standard Deviation
Example of the Standard Deviation with a Well-Behaved Data Set
Example of the Standard Deviation with an Outlier
Example of the Standard Deviation with Open-Ended or Undefined Scores
Evaluating the Variance and Standard Deviation
Online Calculator for Variance and SD

Chapter 5 z-Scores
Introduction
Calculating z-Scores
Calculating z-Scores from a Population
Calculating z-Scores from a Sample
Comparing Two z-Scores
Computing X Scores from z-Scores
z-Distributions
The Standard Normal Distribution
Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution

Chapter 6 Sampling Distributions
Introduction
Bias in Estimation
The Central Limit Theorem
Z-Scores for Sample Means

Chapter 7 Estimation
Representative Samples
The Purpose of Estimation
Accuracy and Precision
Point Estimates
Confidence Intervals
Calculating Confidence Intervals
Values of z for Confidence Intervals
Worked Solution #1
Worked Solution #2
Worked Solution #3
Influences on Confidence Intervals

Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing
Introduction
Effect Sizes
Cohen’s d
Calculating Cohen’s d
Interpreting Cohen’s d
Other Measures of Effect Sizes
p-Values
p-Values and Sample Size
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing
Hypotheses
The Null Hypothesis and the Alternative Hypothesis
Directional (one-tailed) Hypotheses
Nondirectional (two-tailed) Hypotheses
Retaining or Rejecting the Null Hypothesis
Type I and Type II Errors
Type I Errors
Type II Errors
The Meaning of Statistical Significance
The One Sample z-Test
Calculating the One Sample z-Test
Effect Size for the One Sample z-Test

Chapter 9 t-Tests
Introduction
The t-Distributions
The One-Sample t-Test
Calculating the One-Sample t-Test
Effect Size for the One-Sample t-Test
The Repeated Measures t-Test
Calculating the Repeated Measures t-Test
Effect Size for the Repeated Measures t-Test
The Two-Sample t-Test
Calculating the Two-Sample t-Test
Effect Size for the Two-Sample t-Test

Chapter 10 The Analysis of Variance
Introduction
Comparing Means
Analyzing Variance
Hypotheses
Test Statistic and Distribution
Post-Hoc Tests
Effect Size
Two-Way ANOVA

Chapter 11 Correlation and Regression
Introduction
The Correlation Coefficient
Regression
Regression Coefficients and Predicted Values
Calculating Regression Coefficients
Outliers in Regression
Effect Size: R2
Hypothesis Tests
Hypotheses for Correlations
Hypotheses for Regression

Chapter 12 Chi-Squared
Introduction
Expected Frequencies
The Chi-Squared Distributions
The Goodness-of-Fit Test
Hypotheses for the Goodness-of-Fit Test
Expected Frequencies for the Goodness-of-Fit Test
Degrees of Freedom for the Goodness-of-Fit Test
The Test for Independence
Hypotheses for the Test for Independence
Expected Frequencies for the Test for Independence
Degrees of Freedom for the Test for Independence
Hypothesis Tests
Effect Size

Conclusion

Barton Poulson

Barton Poulson is the founder of the data analysis training site, datalab.cc. He has a PhD in social and personality psychology and has taught data analysis, research methods, and data visualization at Hunter College, Lehman College, Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, and Utah Valley University, and online for lynda.com. Bart lives with his wife and three children in Salt Lake City, Utah. You can learn more about his projects and interests at www.bartonpoulson.com.

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Details eBook w/Data Sense Site Access 180 days