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The Sociological Outlook

Author(s): Aaron Thompson, Reid Luhman, Milan Andrejevich, Matthew Howell, SCOTT POWELL

Edition: 10

Copyright: 2018

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Designed to fit in a myriad of different course formats, The Sociological Outlook maps out the sociological journey for students.  It is a text where the “classics” of sociology remain and the current status of society is reflected in statistics.

The new tenth edition of The Sociological Outlook:

  • Is Student Friendly!  Study questions and checklists of important content are included in each chapter.
  • Is flexible! Many chapters can be re-ordered or even omitted without breaking the flow. Important concepts are defined several places throughout the book so that students who missed an appearance will not become lost.
  • Is Comprehensive!  Articles on gender, inequality, race /ethnicity are interweaved throughout the publication and each serve many functions.  For example, Thompson’s article on the black family, for example, is just as suitable for the chapter on race and ethnicity as it is for its current home in the institutional look at family and education.
  • Is Interactive! An accompanying website hosts PowerPoint presentation, media / web links, and automatically graded interactive exercises and quizzes.

Part 1 Introduction to Sociology
Chapter 1 The Sociological Outlook: The Individual and Society

Learning Objectives
Society as a Human Creation
Coordination as a Mode of Adaptation
The Development of Culture: Reason and Rules for Coordination
Humans as a Social Creation
Socialization: The Internalization of Culture
Freedom versus Conformity in Society
Development of The Sociological Outlook
How to Practice Sociology
The Sociological Perspective
The Sociological Imagination
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 2 Sociology as a Social Science
Learning Objectives
Sociology versus Psychology: Different Kinds of Explanations
Sociology as a Science
Concepts and Theories in Sociology
Concepts
Theories
Major Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology
Structural-Functionalism: The Order Theorists
Conflict Theory
The Interactionist Perspective
The Methods of Sociological Research
Quantitative Research Methods
The Formal Experiment
Qualitative research Methods
Participant Observation
Other Sources of Information
Research Ethics
Making Sense of Research Findings: Statistics
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Part 2 Social Processes and Interactions
Chapter 3 The Growth of Culture: The Basis of Society

Learning Objectives
Culture and Society
Cultural Variations
Cultural Universals
Cultural Adaptation
Material Culture
How Material and Nonmaterial Culture Affect Each Other
The Attachment of Meaning to Material Culture
Nonmaterial Culture
Modes of Social Interaction: Norms and Roles
Meanings of Social Interaction: Values and Knowledge
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 4 Socialization: Learning the Game and Becoming a Player
Learning Objectives
Agents of Socialization
Individuals as Agents of Socialization
Institutions as Agents of Socialization
Primary Socialization: The Early Years
Heredity Versus Environment
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Stages
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Taking the Role of the Significant Other: George Herbert Mead
Secondary Socialization: A Lifelong Process
The Development of the Generalized Other
Internalization: The Basis of Morality and Social Constraint
Learning Norms and Internalizing Values
The Development of the Self: Society and Personality
Charles Cooley: The Looking-Glass Self
How to Avoid a Self: An Active Approach to Role Playing
Multiple Selves: The Modern Individual
Resocialization
The Impact of the Total Institution
The Popularity of Religious Cults
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 5 Social Controls and Deviance
Learning Objectives
Types of Deviance
Criminal Behavior
Noncriminal Deviance: Alcoholism, Mental Illness, and Mental Retardation
Types of Deviance: How Many?
Theories of Deviance
Deviant-Centered Theories
Society-Centered Theories
Power and Authority in the Control of Deviance
Deviance as a Threat to Authority
Deviance as a Social Definition
Responses to Deviance: Courts and Prisons
Deviance and Social Change: When Does Creativity Become Dangerous?
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Part 3 Social Inequality
Chapter 6 Social Differentiation and Social Groups

Learning Objectives
Social Differentiation: Categories and Groups
The Category and the Group
Types of Social Groups
How Individuals Recognize Their Category Membership (with a little help from their friends)
Social Group Processes
Age Differentiation in American Society
Age as a Social Category
Age as a Basis for Group Formation
Gender Differentiation in American Society
Gender-Role Socialization
“Doing Gender” in Society: Affirming Gender Roles in Interaction
Sex Discrimination and Sexism
Gender as a Basis for Group Formation
Social Class and Social Status Differentiation
Racial and Ethnic Differentiation
Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies
Bureaucracies
Organizational Alienation and Compliance
Organizational Structure
Organizations and Their Environments
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 7 Social Stratification: Social Dominance and Subordination
Learning Objectives
Basic Features of Social Stratification
Class, Status, and Power
Social Mobility
Why Stratification and Who Benefits? Opposing Theories
Structural-Functionalism: The Order Theorists
The Conflict Theorists
Order and Conflict Theories: A Final Look
Social Class in the United States
Inequality in the United States
Social Classes in the United States: How Many?
The Myth of the Classless Society
Avenues and Barriers to Social Mobility
Changing Opportunities in the United States
The Individual Experience of Social Class
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 8 Racial and Ethnic Relations
Learning Objectives
Key Issues and Concepts in Race and Ethnic Relations
Racial and Ethnic Groups
Minority and Majority Status: A Question of Dominance and Subordination
Ethnic Stratification: The Exploitation of Minority Groups
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: Responses to Ethnic Stratification
Stereotypes
The Psychology of Prejudice
The Sociology of Prejudice
Discrimination
Institutional (Covert) Discrimination
Racial and Ethnic Groups in Contact: Social and Political Arrangements
The Myth of the Melting Pot
The Response of the Dominant Group
The Response of the Minority Group: Cultural Pluralism and Separatism
Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States
The Growth of Racism
European Immigration
Asian Immigration
African Americans
Hispanic Americans
Native Americans
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Part 4 Social Institutions
Chapter 9 Social Change and Industrialization: The Growth of Social Institutions

Learning Objectives
Types of Human Societies (and Types of Humans)
Technological Change in Society
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft: Traditional and Industrial Societies
The Development of Social Institutions
Education
The Economy
Government and Politics
Religion
The Changing Family
Understanding Society Through Institutions
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 10 The Family
Learning Objectives
Elements of Family Life
Patterns of Family Life
Patterns of Marriage and Mate Selection
Social Change and the American Family
Changing Roles in the American Family
The Value of Children: Childless Marriages
The Family and Inequality
Marriage and Divorce
Gay and Lesbian Families
Family Violence
The Family: A Last Look
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms
References
Discussion Questions

Chapter 11 Education
Learning Objectives
Education and Society: Goals and Functions
Americanization of Immigrants
Cultural and Political Integration
Imparting and Creating Knowledge
Screening
Socialization (and the Hidden Curriculum)
Equality of Educational Opportunity
Teacher Stereotypes and Expectations
Tracking
Inequality in School Funding
The Structure of American Primary and Secondary Education
Public and Private Schools
Magnet Schools
Multicultural and Bilingual Education
Mainstreaming the Disabled
School Effectiveness
Higher Education in the United States
Higher Education: Public and Private
Access to Higher Education
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 12 Religion
Learning Objectives
Religious Beliefs and Organizations
Varieties of Religious Beliefs
Forms of Religious Organization
Sociological Theories of Religion: Origins and Functions
Religion in the United States
Organization
The Correlates of Religious Affiliation: Organizations, Beliefs, and Social Attitudes
Trends in Religious Change
Summary
Study Questions
Explore Sociology
Key Terms

Chapter 13 The Economy and the Political Institution
Learning Objectives
The Economy
Industrial Revolution
Types of Economic Systems
Corporations
The World of Work in the United States: Problems and Trends
The Political Institution
Political Systems: Arrangements of Power and Authority
Political Ideology
Classical Liberalism reflected the interests of the middle and business classes:
Conservatism – defenders of a restored order:
Politics in the United States
The Sources of Power: Pluralism Versus Elitism
Summary
Study Questions
Activities
Key Terms

Part 5 Social Change
Chapter 14 Human Populations and Demography

Learning Objectives
Demography: Concepts and Perspectives
Population in the Industrial World
The Demographic Transition
The Modern Industrial World: Changes in Women’s Roles and Family Values
Population in the Nonindustrial World
Economic Development in the Nonindustrial World
Responses to Poverty
The Effects of Zero Population Growth
Migration
International Migration
Internal Migration
Urbanization
Why Urbanization?
The Effects of Urbanization
Trends in Urbanization: Cities Today and Tomorrow
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

Chapter 15 Collective Behavior and Social Movements: Sources of Social Change
Learning Objectives
Collective Behavior
Fads and Fashions
Publics and Public Opinion
Responses to Disaster
Panic and Mass Hysteria
Crowds: Mobs, Riots, Audiences, Gatherings, and Other Collections
The Role of Rumor
Social Movements
Types of Social Movements
The Structure of Social Movements
The Natural History of Social Movements
Social Movements as Agents of Social Change
Summary
Study Questions
Key Terms

References

Glossary

Index

Aaron Thompson

Aaron Thompson is a nationally recognized leader in higher education with a focus on policy, student success and organizational leadership and design. He serves as President of the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education and as professor of sociology in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Eastern Kentucky University. He recently served as interim president of Kentucky State University. Thompson holds a doctorate in sociology in areas of organizational behavior and race and gender relations.

His leadership experience spans 27 years across higher education, business and numerous non-profit boards. Thompson has researched, taught and consulted in areas of diversity, leadership, ethics, multicultural families, race and ethnic relations, student success, first-year students, retention, cultural competence and organizational design throughout his career.

As a highly sought after national speaker, Thompson has presented more than 800 workshops, seminars and invited lectures in areas of race and gender diversity, living an unbiased life, overcoming obstacles to gain success, creating a school environment for academic success, cultural competence, workplace interaction, leadership, organizational goal setting, building relationships, the first-year seminar, and a variety of other topics. He continues to serve as a consultant to educational institutions (elementary, secondary and postsecondary), corporations, non-profit organizations, police departments and other governmental agencies.

Thompson has published more than 30 publications and numerous research and peer reviewed presentations. He has authored or co-authored the following books: Changing Student Culture from the Ground Up, The Sociological Outlook, Infusing Diversity and Cultural Competence into Teacher Education, Peer to Peer Leadership: Changing Student Culture from the Ground Up. He also co-authored Thriving in College and Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success, Thriving in the Community College and Beyond: Research-Based Strategies for Academic Success and Personal Development, Diversity and the College Experience, Focus on Success and Black Men and Divorce.

Reid Luhman

Reid Luhman, Ph.D., is currently Foundation Professor Emeritus at Eastern Kentucky University. He received his BA in sociology at the University of California and his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of Kansas. His areas of teaching and research include Race and Ethnic Relations, Language, Education,
Theory and Family. He is the author of three textbooks including Race and Ethnic Relations: The Social and Political Experience of Minority Groups (with Stuart Gilman), The Sociological Outlook, and Race and Ethnicity in the United States: Our Differences and Our Roots. His early research focused on the cognitive development of bilingual children, involving a year of research in a New Mexico bilingual school. That developed into further research on attitudes toward language dialect differences. More recent research has focused on the relation of family attributes to the educational attainment of children. He has been active in the Midwest Sociological Society, the Southern Sociological Society, and the National Council on Family Relations. He has also been a very dedicated teacher—a significant cause of his being awarded a Foundation Professorship—and has gone on to serve as a teacher mentor in a university setting.

Milan Andrejevich

Milan Andrejevich is currently Professor of History and Political Science at Ivy Tech Community College and Term Lecturer of Political Science at Purdue University Northwest. He has served the College is numerous capacities: State Chair of the Social Sciences and Humanities Curriculum Committees; Chair of the Faculty Advisory Council (South Bend/Elkhart), member of the Statewide Faculty Council; member of the Open Education Resources Cross-Discipline Committee, and Global Studies Group; created the original framework for the nationally-recognized Global Studies Certificate; and developed history and political sciences courses for Ivy Tech Online. A graduate of the University of Chicago, he is also a two-time Fulbright-Hays recipient to the former Yugoslavia. Prior to teaching, he served the U.S. government and U.N. in various capacities: Senior Analyst and Advisor for the Office of the Prosecutor at the U.N. International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia [The Netherlands]; Assistant Director, Research Section Chief, and Senior Analyst at Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty [Munich] which was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize; journalist and contributor to numerous international news media organizations; advisor to former U.S. Secretaries of State and U.S. Ambassadors to the U.N. related to peace negotiation teams during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia; consultant to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and National Security Council. Published extensively and contributed to several key studies on ethnic relations, intercultural and global communication, terrorism, interstate, and global conflict. He has lectured at numerous U.S. and European universities and presented at national and international professional conferences.

Matthew Howell

Matthew Howell is currently Associate Professor of Sociology and the Program Chair of the Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Valparaiso, Indiana campus of Ivy Tech Community College. After a twenty-five year career in the restaurant industry which included awards and recognition, he decided to return to school. He completed his M.A. in sociology in 2009 at the University of Notre Dame. His Master’s Thesis examined the use of history as a marker of legitimating status on websites for restaurants. Upon graduation, he was employed as an adjunct lecturer at Ivy Tech in South Bend. Within a year, he secured a full-time position with Ivy Tech Community College at the Valparaiso campus, where he has been teaching since 2010.

Matthew is involved in the local community in Valparaiso in numerous ways. He is a graduate of the Valpo Chamber of Commerce Leadership Academy, and has volunteered at events sponsored by the Valpo Chamber of Commerce, including Envision the Future, a program that helps 8th grade students begin to plan for a career. He supervised Ivy Tech Community College student interns working on a community improvement project for AmeriCorps and the United Way of Porter County. He is a member of the Valparaiso Noontime Chapter of Kiwanis International, and he serves as the chairperson of the Valparaiso Noontime Kiwanis Scholarship Committee, awarding thousands of dollars in scholarships each spring to local high school graduates in Valparaiso. He also serves on the Advisory Board of the Salvation Army of Porter County, where he assists with fund-raising programs like the Christmas Kettle Program.

SCOTT POWELL

Scott M. Powell, Ph.D. is an award-winning educator, author and global traveler. A recipient of Ivy Tech Community College’s President’s Award for Excellence in Instruction and NISOD Excellence Award, he has proven himself a leader in higher education championing global studies. In addition to teaching sociology at Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, he serves as its global studies coordinator.

Powell’s expertise has reached all corners of Indiana. He has served two terms as chairperson of Ivy Tech’s statewide social science curriculum committee; he is a presidential appointee to the inaugural statewide faculty council; and a three-time president of Ivy Tech Terre Haute’s faculty senate. Powell is the creator of the Terre Haute campus’ Global Studies Council, and annually organizes events promoting the new global studies certificate. Powell is also a recipient of the (CIBER) faculty development grant to teach and develop a study abroad program in the Terre Haute campus. He holds a certificate from Indiana University’s Institute for Curriculum and Campus Internationalization and has been a participant in the Global Learning Across Indiana Initiative.

An alumnus of Ohio University and Shawnee State University, Powell has a Ph.D. in cultural studies, a master’s in sociology, and bachelor’s degrees in history and social science. He is a regular presenter at national conferences in sociology, education and criminal justice. He has authored books, presentations and articles on education, sociology and poverty. Powell was born in Beaver, Ohio and currently resides in Terre Haute, Indiana with his wife and children.

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