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Visualization: Using Mental Images to Strengthen Ccomprehension

Author(s): Linda Zeigler, Jerry Johns

Edition: 1

Copyright: 2005

Pages: 232

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Visualization has not been a common word in most classroom reading programs. In recent years, however, the impact of visualization on student comprehension has gained greater awareness among reading educators. This compact, easy-to-use book helps teachers understand visualization and how to apply the strategies in their classrooms.

Includes 57 lessons arranged within 13 goals, assessments for the goals, and rubrics to score the assessments. Also contains links to literature questions and cues to use with students.

Visualization, by Linda L. Zeigler and Jerry L. Johns, is intended to help classroom teachers, reading specialists, and other professionals who are involved in creating and delivering high-quality reading instruction to students. The book can be used for staff development programs and as a supplemental in a wide variety of reading courses at colleges and universities.

Foreword
Preface
About the Authors
Acknowledgments
Visualization Overview


STAGE 1 REALIZING
Overview
Goal 1: To help students realize that they use visualization to remember images or experiences from their lives.
Lessons 1: It's Your Life
2: What's in the Box?
3: Picture This
4: Own the Object
Reinforcing Goal 1
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 1
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 1
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 2: To help students realize that mental images are created by imagination and prior knowledge.
Lessons 1: Stimulating the Imagination
2: Bubble Experiences
3: Let's Pretend
4: You Can Imagine
Reinforcing Goal 2
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 2
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 2
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 3: To help students realize that mental images can be created while listening or reading.
Lessons 1: Picture Power
2: Who Said That?
3: See the Setting
4: Hear It, See It
Reinforcing Goal 3
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 3
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 3
Samples of Student Assessment Results

STAGE 2 UNDERSTANDING
Overview
Goal 4: To help students understand that images move and change during reading.
Lessons 1: Change It Up
2: Past/Present/Future
3: Act It Out
4: Setting Changes
5: Divide and Conquer
6: Stop and Draw
Reinforcing Goal 4
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 4
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 4
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 5: To help students form mental images in greater detail.
Lessons 1: In the Beginning
2: Look and Touch
3: Rock On
4: Similar Details
5: See the Sentence
Reinforcing Goal 5
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 5
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 5
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 6: To help students use all five senses to create images.
Lessons 1: Discover the Senses
2: Connecting the Senses to Text
3: Sense Cards
4: Sense Cards and Inference
Reinforcing Goal 6
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 6
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 6
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 7: To help students identify and use eight basic emotions to remember
images.
Lessons 1: Guess the Emotions
2: Find the Feeling
3: Emotion Continuums
4: Spot the Feeling Words
5: Remember When
Reinforcing Goal 7
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 7
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 7
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 8: To help students understand that images must be created to match the text, rather than over-relying on their prior knowledge.
Lessons 1: It Must Match
2: Confusion
3: What You Know May Not Go
Reinforcing Goal 8
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 8
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 8
Samples of Student Assessment Results
Goal 9: To help students understand that imaging varies for narrative, informational, and other text structures.
Lessons 1: Understanding the Parts of a Narrative
2: Connecting the Parts of a Narrative
3: Movie Time
4: Parts of Informational Text
5: Documentary Time
6: Parts of Technical Text
7: Parts of Persuasive Text
Reinforcing Goal 9
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for Goal 9
Rubric to Score the Assessment for Goal 9
SAMPLES OF STUDENT ASSESSMENT RESULTS

STAGE 3 APPLYING
Overview
Goal 10: To help students use visual images as a foundation to help them predict, draw conclusions, infer, and evaluate text.
Lessons 1: Put the Clues Together
2: What Do You Think?
3: Why Laugh?
4: Predict Differently
5: Questions and Answers
Reinforcing Goal 10
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Goal 11: To help students use visualization as a strategy to enhance learning throughout the curriculum.
Lessons 1: Visualize for Writing
2: Visualize for Art
3: Visualize for Social Studies
4: Visualize for Math
5: Visualize for Science
Reinforcing Goal 11
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Goal 12: To help students use visual imagery with figurative language and analogies to better understand a process or a new concept.
Lessons 1: Making Heads or Tails Out of Idioms
2: Personification Intrigues the Imagination
3: Similes and Metaphors Are Images
4: Analogies Promote Higher-Level Thinking
5: A Sandwich?
Reinforcing Goal 12
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Goal 13: To help students use visualization to envision, dream, or imagine new thoughts and ideas.
Lessons 1: Invention through Imagination
2: Reflect to Connect
3: Visual Freedom and Creativity
Reinforcing Goal 13
Linking Literature
Using Questions and Cues
Assessment for the Application Stage
Rubric to Score the Application Stage
Samples of Student Assessment Results
References
Index

Linda Zeigler

Linda L. Zeigler is currently an elementary principal at Quinter Elementary for Quinter Public Schools. She brings twenty-five years of teaching experience in public schools. Linda taught prereading to preschoolers and reading to kindergarten through sixth-grade students. As an adjunct faculty member for Fort Hays State University (FHSU) in Hays, Kansas, she taught both undergraduate and graduate courses in reading.

Linda has presented at state, regional, and international reading conferences. She has helped a number of schools as a reading consultant and has presented numerous reading inservices in several states. She serves on the editorial board for the Kansas Reading Journal.

Linda has teamed on state-level committees to help advance reading assessment and instruction in the state of Kansas. She has worked with Jerry Johns to develop One Reader at a Time, which rates a student's reading performance using rubrics and continuums. This management notebook and computer program uses the Basic Reading Inventory as the assessment tool to find each student's strengths and areas of concern. Research using this reading inventory and the analysis program demonstrated the need for students to be intentionally taught to use the strategy of visualization, which planted the seeds for Visualization: Using Mental Images to Strengthen ComprehensionEnhancing Writing through Visualization, is a result of discovering how visualization builds a valuable reading/writing connection to improve literacy skills.

Jerry Johns

Jerry L. Johns has been recognized as a distinguished teacher, writer, outstanding teacher educator, and popular professional development speaker for schools, school districts, and conferences. He has taught students from kindergarten through graduate school and also served as a reading teacher. Professor Johns spent his career at Northern Illinois University. He served in leadership positions at the local, state, national, and international levels. He has been president of the International Literacy Association, the Illinois Reading Council, the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers, and the Northern Illinois Reading Council. He also served on the Board of Directors for each of these organizations as well as the American Reading Forum. Dr. Johns has authored or coauthored nearly 300 articles, monographs, and research studies as well as over 40 professional books. His Basic Reading Inventory, now in the 12th edition, is widely used in undergraduate and graduate classes as well as by practicing teachers.

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