American Courts

Author(s): Daniel Clay

Edition: 2

Copyright: 2019

Pages: 694

Choose Your Format

Ebook

$129.65

ISBN 9781524984519

Details Electronic Delivery EBOOK 180 days

SECTION I: AN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICA’S COURTS

CHAPTER 1: THE LAW & JURISDICTION OF AMERICAN COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Philosophical Basis of Law
III. The Families of the Law
IV. American Criminal Law
a. The Common Law Tradition
i. Case Reporters
ii. Statutes and Codes
b. Adversarial Model
c. Elements of a Crime
i. Actus Reus
ii. Mens Rea
iii. Concurrence
iv. Attendant Circumstances
v. Causation & Harm
vi. The Equations of Crime
V. Jurisdiction of the American Courts
a. The Dual Court System
b. Geographical/Territorial Jurisdiction
i. Extradition
c. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
d. Personal Jurisdiction
e. Hierarchical Jurisdiction
f. Concurrent Jurisdiction
VI. Venue
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 2: THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FEDERAL COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Historical Overview of the Federal Courts
a. Establishing the Supreme Court
b. Establishing the Inferior Federal Courts
c. Court of Appeals Act of 1897
d. The Court Packing Plan
III. Modern Structure of the Federal Courts
a. United States Magistrate Courts
b. United States District Courts
i. United States Code
ii. Civil Cases: Diversity Jurisdiction
iii. Civil Cases: Federal Question Jurisdiction
iv. Administrative Appellate Jurisdiction
c. United States Courts of Appeals
d. United States Supreme Court
IV. Specialized Federal Courts: Article III
a. United States Court of International Trade
b. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
V. Specialized Federal Courts: Article I
a. United States Bankruptcy Court
b. United States Court of Federal Claims
c. United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
d. United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forced
e. United States Tax Court
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 3: THE ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Historical Overview of the State Courts
a. Colonial Courts
b. Post-Revolution Courts
c. Modern Structure of State Courts
III. State Trial Courts
a. Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
i. Caseload of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
ii. Appeals from Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
b. Courts of General Jurisdiction
IV. State Appellate Courts
a. The Role of State Intermediate Appellate Courts
b. The Jurisdiction of State Intermediate Appellate Courts
V. State Courts of Last Resort
a. Jurisdiction of State Courts of Last Resort
i. Matters of State Law
ii. Matters of Federal Law
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

SECTION II: THE COURTROOM WORKGROUP

CHAPTER 4: PROSECUTORS
I. Introduction
II. History of Prosecutors
a. The Evolution of Private Prosecutions
b. The Creation of Public Prosecutors
i. Pre-Revolution
ii. Post-Revolution
III. Modern Prosecutors
a. Federal Level Prosecutors
i. The Attorney General
ii. The United States Attorneys
b. State Level Prosecutions
i. Overview
ii. Controversial Selection of State Prosecutors
iii. Limited Training and Experience
IV. Prosecutorial Duties and Discretion
a. The Charging Decision
i. Prosecutorial Discretion
ii. Abuses of Discretion
b. Professional Code of Conduct
c. Victims Services
V. Conclusion
VI. Key Terms
VII. Discussion Questions
VIII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 5: DEFENSE ATTORNEYS
I. Introduction
II. The Right to Counsel
a. Establishing the Right to Counsel
b. Attachment of the Right to Counsel
c. Appeals and the Right to Counsel
III. Indigent Defense
a. Indigency Determinations
b. Indigent Counsel Systems
i. Public Defender Systems
ii. Appointed Counsel Systems
iii. Contract Counsel Systems
IV. The Right to Effective Representation
Attorney Representation
i. Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
ii. Disparity of Resources
b. Pro Se Representation
i. Becoming a Pro Se Defendant
ii. The Frequency and Efficacy of Self-Representation
V. Professional Code of Conduct
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 6: JUDGES
I. Introduction
II. The Role of the Judge
III. Federal Judges
a. Article III Judges
i. Appointment
ii. Compensation
iii. Senior Judge Status & Retirement
iv. Demography
b. Article I Judges
i. United States Magistrate Judges
ii. United States Bankruptcy Judges
iii. Court of Federal Claims Judges
iv. U.S. Court of Appeals for Veteran’s Claims Judges
v. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forced Judges
vi. United State Tax Court Judges
IV. State Judges
a. Selection of Judges
i. Appointments
ii. Elections
iii. Merit Selection Plans (“Missouri Bar Plan”)
b. Diversity on the Bench
V. Judicial Ethics
a. Canons of Judicial Conduct
b. Disciplining Judges
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

SECTION III: ADJUDICATION

CHAPTER 7: PRE-ARREST PROCEDURES
X. Introduction
XI. Search Warrants
a. Applying for a Search Warrant
b. Executing a Search Warrant
c. Warrantless Searches
XII. The Charging Decision
a. The Grand Jury Indictment
i. Selecting the Grand Jury
ii. The Grand Jury Investigation
b. The Information/Complaint
XIII. Arrests
a. Arrest Warrants
b. Warrantless Arrests
c. Summons
XIV. Conclusion
XV. Key Terms
XVI. Discussion Questions
XVII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 8: PRE-TRIAL PROCEEDINGS
I. Introduction
II. The Initial Appearance
III. Bail (“Pre-Trial Release)
a. Federal Bail Determinations
b. State Bail Determinations
c. Appealing Bail Determinations
d. Affording Bail (Bondsmen and Sureties)
IV. The Preliminary (“Probable Cause” Hearing)
a. Federal Preliminary Hearings
b. State Preliminary Hearings
V. The Arraignment
VI. Discovery
a. Federal-Level Discovery
b. State-Level Discovery
VII. Motion Practice
a. Motions to Suppress
b. Motions to Dismiss
c. Motions for Change of Venue
VIII. Plea Bargaining
a. Entering a Guilty Plea
b. Withdrawing a Guilty Plea
c. Enforcing a Plea Agreement
d. Failure to Accept a Plea Agreement
IX. Conclusion
X. Key Terms
XI. Discussion Questions
XII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 9: THE CRIMINAL TRIAL
I. Introduction
II. The Speedy Trial Act
III. The Petite Jury
a. A Brief History of the Jury Trial
b. Selecting the Jury
i. Compiling the Master List
ii. The Jury Venire
iii. Voir Dire
iv. Death Qualified Juries
c. Jury Nullification
d. Jury Sequestration
IV. Beginning Presumptions and Burdens
a. The Prosecution
i. Burden of Proof
b. The Defense
i. Presumption of Innocence
ii. Presumption of Sanity
V. The Rules of Evidence
a. Types & Admissibility of Evidence
i. Testimonial Evidence
ii. Real Evidence
iii. Scientific/Expert Evidence
1. The Frye Standard
2. The Daubert Standard
iv. Demonstrative Evidence
VI. The Trial
a. Opening Statements
b. Prosecution’s Case-in-Chief
i. Direct Examination
ii. Objections
iii. Cross Examination
iv. Motion for Judgment of Acquittal
c. Defendant’s Case-in-Chief
i. Affirmative Defenses: Justifications
1. Self-Defense
2. Defense of Others
3. Defense of Home and Property
4. Choice of Evils Defense
5. Consent
ii. Affirmative Defenses: Excuses
1. The Insanity Defense
2. The Defense of Diminished Capacity
3. The Excuse of Age
4. The Defense of Duress
5. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication
6. The Defense of Entrapment
7. Syndrome Defenses
iii. Defendant’s Testimony
iv. Renewed Motion for Judgment of Acquittal
d. Rebuttal & Surrebuttal
e. Closing Arguments
f. Jury Instructions
g. Jury Deliberations
h. The Verdict
i. Post-Verdict Motions
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 10: SENTENCING
I. Introduction
II. The Sentencing Hearing
a. The Pre-Sentence Investigation Report
b. The Hearing
c. The Allocution
III. The Purpose of Punishment
a. Retribution
b. Deterrence
c. Rehabilitation
d. Incapacitation
e. Restoration
IV. Determining a Sentence
a. Evolution of Sentencing
b. Federal Sentencing Guidelines
c. State Sentencing Guidelines
V. Sentences
a. Probation
b. Fines
c. Incarceration
d. Intermediate Sanctions
e. Suspended Sentences
f. Death
VI. The Death Penalty
a. Imposing a Death Sentence
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 11: APPEALS AND COLLATERAL ATTACKS
I. Introduction
II. Filing a Direct Appeal
a. The Contemporaneous Objection Rule
b. Interlocutory Appeals
c. Notice of Appeal
d. Appellate Record
e. Legal Briefs
i. Basic Filing Requirements
ii. Preliminary Review of the Briefs
f. Oral Arguments
III. Deciding the Appeal
a. Legal Retrains & Obstacles
i. Mootness
ii. Ripeness
iii. Standing
b. The Merits of the Case
i. Harmless Error Review
1. Questions of Law
2. Questions of Fact
3. Discretionary Determinations
4. Mixed Questions of Fact and Law
IV. The Opinion
V. Appealing the Appeal
a. The United States Supreme Court
VI. Writs of Habeas Corpus
a. Basic Filing Requirements
i. Be in Custody
ii. Assert a Federal Claim
iii. Exhaust All State Remedies
iv. Timely File the Petition
v. File Only One Petition
b. Deciding the Petition
c. Appealing the Petition
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

SECTION IV: APPENDICES
Appendix A: The United States Constitution
Appendix B: Indigent Appointment Application
Appendix C: Select Rules of Criminal Procedure
Appendix D: Federal Search Warrant Application
Appendix E: Federal Search Warrant and Return
Appendix F: Federal Bail Determination Statute
Appendix G: Sample Search Warrant Wording
Appendix H: Completed Application, Warrant, and Return
Appendix I: Sample Target Letter
Appendix J: Completed Federal Indictment
Appendix K: No Bill
Appendix L: Federal C
Appendix M: Federal Arrest Warrant
Appendix N: Federal Summons
Appendix O: Bail Information Sheet
Appendix P: Additional Conditions of Release
Appendix Q: Order Setting Conditions of Release
Appendix R: Detention Order
Appendix S: California Felony Bail Schedule
Appendix T: Surety Bond Agreement
Appendix U: Sample Motion to Suppress
Appendix V: Plea Colloquy
Appendix W: Jury Summons
Appendix X: Jury Questionnaire
Appendix Y: Presentence Investigation Report
Appendix Z: U.S. Sentencing Guideline Table
Appendix AA: U.S. Sentencing Order
Appendix BB: Notice of Appeal
Appendix CC: Sample Brief
Appendix DD: Sample SCOTUS opinion
Appendix EE: Petition for a Writ of Habeas Corpus

SECTION V: GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Daniel Clay

SECTION I: AN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICA’S COURTS

CHAPTER 1: THE LAW & JURISDICTION OF AMERICAN COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Philosophical Basis of Law
III. The Families of the Law
IV. American Criminal Law
a. The Common Law Tradition
i. Case Reporters
ii. Statutes and Codes
b. Adversarial Model
c. Elements of a Crime
i. Actus Reus
ii. Mens Rea
iii. Concurrence
iv. Attendant Circumstances
v. Causation & Harm
vi. The Equations of Crime
V. Jurisdiction of the American Courts
a. The Dual Court System
b. Geographical/Territorial Jurisdiction
i. Extradition
c. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
d. Personal Jurisdiction
e. Hierarchical Jurisdiction
f. Concurrent Jurisdiction
VI. Venue
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 2: THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FEDERAL COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Historical Overview of the Federal Courts
a. Establishing the Supreme Court
b. Establishing the Inferior Federal Courts
c. Court of Appeals Act of 1897
d. The Court Packing Plan
III. Modern Structure of the Federal Courts
a. United States Magistrate Courts
b. United States District Courts
i. United States Code
ii. Civil Cases: Diversity Jurisdiction
iii. Civil Cases: Federal Question Jurisdiction
iv. Administrative Appellate Jurisdiction
c. United States Courts of Appeals
d. United States Supreme Court
IV. Specialized Federal Courts: Article III
a. United States Court of International Trade
b. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
V. Specialized Federal Courts: Article I
a. United States Bankruptcy Court
b. United States Court of Federal Claims
c. United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
d. United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forced
e. United States Tax Court
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 3: THE ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE COURTS
I. Introduction
II. Historical Overview of the State Courts
a. Colonial Courts
b. Post-Revolution Courts
c. Modern Structure of State Courts
III. State Trial Courts
a. Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
i. Caseload of Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
ii. Appeals from Courts of Limited Jurisdiction
b. Courts of General Jurisdiction
IV. State Appellate Courts
a. The Role of State Intermediate Appellate Courts
b. The Jurisdiction of State Intermediate Appellate Courts
V. State Courts of Last Resort
a. Jurisdiction of State Courts of Last Resort
i. Matters of State Law
ii. Matters of Federal Law
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

SECTION II: THE COURTROOM WORKGROUP

CHAPTER 4: PROSECUTORS
I. Introduction
II. History of Prosecutors
a. The Evolution of Private Prosecutions
b. The Creation of Public Prosecutors
i. Pre-Revolution
ii. Post-Revolution
III. Modern Prosecutors
a. Federal Level Prosecutors
i. The Attorney General
ii. The United States Attorneys
b. State Level Prosecutions
i. Overview
ii. Controversial Selection of State Prosecutors
iii. Limited Training and Experience
IV. Prosecutorial Duties and Discretion
a. The Charging Decision
i. Prosecutorial Discretion
ii. Abuses of Discretion
b. Professional Code of Conduct
c. Victims Services
V. Conclusion
VI. Key Terms
VII. Discussion Questions
VIII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 5: DEFENSE ATTORNEYS
I. Introduction
II. The Right to Counsel
a. Establishing the Right to Counsel
b. Attachment of the Right to Counsel
c. Appeals and the Right to Counsel
III. Indigent Defense
a. Indigency Determinations
b. Indigent Counsel Systems
i. Public Defender Systems
ii. Appointed Counsel Systems
iii. Contract Counsel Systems
IV. The Right to Effective Representation
Attorney Representation
i. Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
ii. Disparity of Resources
b. Pro Se Representation
i. Becoming a Pro Se Defendant
ii. The Frequency and Efficacy of Self-Representation
V. Professional Code of Conduct
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 6: JUDGES
I. Introduction
II. The Role of the Judge
III. Federal Judges
a. Article III Judges
i. Appointment
ii. Compensation
iii. Senior Judge Status & Retirement
iv. Demography
b. Article I Judges
i. United States Magistrate Judges
ii. United States Bankruptcy Judges
iii. Court of Federal Claims Judges
iv. U.S. Court of Appeals for Veteran’s Claims Judges
v. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forced Judges
vi. United State Tax Court Judges
IV. State Judges
a. Selection of Judges
i. Appointments
ii. Elections
iii. Merit Selection Plans (“Missouri Bar Plan”)
b. Diversity on the Bench
V. Judicial Ethics
a. Canons of Judicial Conduct
b. Disciplining Judges
VI. Conclusion
VII. Key Terms
VIII. Discussion Questions
IX. Chapter Sources

SECTION III: ADJUDICATION

CHAPTER 7: PRE-ARREST PROCEDURES
X. Introduction
XI. Search Warrants
a. Applying for a Search Warrant
b. Executing a Search Warrant
c. Warrantless Searches
XII. The Charging Decision
a. The Grand Jury Indictment
i. Selecting the Grand Jury
ii. The Grand Jury Investigation
b. The Information/Complaint
XIII. Arrests
a. Arrest Warrants
b. Warrantless Arrests
c. Summons
XIV. Conclusion
XV. Key Terms
XVI. Discussion Questions
XVII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 8: PRE-TRIAL PROCEEDINGS
I. Introduction
II. The Initial Appearance
III. Bail (“Pre-Trial Release)
a. Federal Bail Determinations
b. State Bail Determinations
c. Appealing Bail Determinations
d. Affording Bail (Bondsmen and Sureties)
IV. The Preliminary (“Probable Cause” Hearing)
a. Federal Preliminary Hearings
b. State Preliminary Hearings
V. The Arraignment
VI. Discovery
a. Federal-Level Discovery
b. State-Level Discovery
VII. Motion Practice
a. Motions to Suppress
b. Motions to Dismiss
c. Motions for Change of Venue
VIII. Plea Bargaining
a. Entering a Guilty Plea
b. Withdrawing a Guilty Plea
c. Enforcing a Plea Agreement
d. Failure to Accept a Plea Agreement
IX. Conclusion
X. Key Terms
XI. Discussion Questions
XII. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 9: THE CRIMINAL TRIAL
I. Introduction
II. The Speedy Trial Act
III. The Petite Jury
a. A Brief History of the Jury Trial
b. Selecting the Jury
i. Compiling the Master List
ii. The Jury Venire
iii. Voir Dire
iv. Death Qualified Juries
c. Jury Nullification
d. Jury Sequestration
IV. Beginning Presumptions and Burdens
a. The Prosecution
i. Burden of Proof
b. The Defense
i. Presumption of Innocence
ii. Presumption of Sanity
V. The Rules of Evidence
a. Types & Admissibility of Evidence
i. Testimonial Evidence
ii. Real Evidence
iii. Scientific/Expert Evidence
1. The Frye Standard
2. The Daubert Standard
iv. Demonstrative Evidence
VI. The Trial
a. Opening Statements
b. Prosecution’s Case-in-Chief
i. Direct Examination
ii. Objections
iii. Cross Examination
iv. Motion for Judgment of Acquittal
c. Defendant’s Case-in-Chief
i. Affirmative Defenses: Justifications
1. Self-Defense
2. Defense of Others
3. Defense of Home and Property
4. Choice of Evils Defense
5. Consent
ii. Affirmative Defenses: Excuses
1. The Insanity Defense
2. The Defense of Diminished Capacity
3. The Excuse of Age
4. The Defense of Duress
5. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication
6. The Defense of Entrapment
7. Syndrome Defenses
iii. Defendant’s Testimony
iv. Renewed Motion for Judgment of Acquittal
d. Rebuttal & Surrebuttal
e. Closing Arguments
f. Jury Instructions
g. Jury Deliberations
h. The Verdict
i. Post-Verdict Motions
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 10: SENTENCING
I. Introduction
II. The Sentencing Hearing
a. The Pre-Sentence Investigation Report
b. The Hearing
c. The Allocution
III. The Purpose of Punishment
a. Retribution
b. Deterrence
c. Rehabilitation
d. Incapacitation
e. Restoration
IV. Determining a Sentence
a. Evolution of Sentencing
b. Federal Sentencing Guidelines
c. State Sentencing Guidelines
V. Sentences
a. Probation
b. Fines
c. Incarceration
d. Intermediate Sanctions
e. Suspended Sentences
f. Death
VI. The Death Penalty
a. Imposing a Death Sentence
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

CHAPTER 11: APPEALS AND COLLATERAL ATTACKS
I. Introduction
II. Filing a Direct Appeal
a. The Contemporaneous Objection Rule
b. Interlocutory Appeals
c. Notice of Appeal
d. Appellate Record
e. Legal Briefs
i. Basic Filing Requirements
ii. Preliminary Review of the Briefs
f. Oral Arguments
III. Deciding the Appeal
a. Legal Retrains & Obstacles
i. Mootness
ii. Ripeness
iii. Standing
b. The Merits of the Case
i. Harmless Error Review
1. Questions of Law
2. Questions of Fact
3. Discretionary Determinations
4. Mixed Questions of Fact and Law
IV. The Opinion
V. Appealing the Appeal
a. The United States Supreme Court
VI. Writs of Habeas Corpus
a. Basic Filing Requirements
i. Be in Custody
ii. Assert a Federal Claim
iii. Exhaust All State Remedies
iv. Timely File the Petition
v. File Only One Petition
b. Deciding the Petition
c. Appealing the Petition
VII. Conclusion
VIII. Key Terms
IX. Discussion Questions
X. Chapter Sources

SECTION IV: APPENDICES
Appendix A: The United States Constitution
Appendix B: Indigent Appointment Application
Appendix C: Select Rules of Criminal Procedure
Appendix D: Federal Search Warrant Application
Appendix E: Federal Search Warrant and Return
Appendix F: Federal Bail Determination Statute
Appendix G: Sample Search Warrant Wording
Appendix H: Completed Application, Warrant, and Return
Appendix I: Sample Target Letter
Appendix J: Completed Federal Indictment
Appendix K: No Bill
Appendix L: Federal C
Appendix M: Federal Arrest Warrant
Appendix N: Federal Summons
Appendix O: Bail Information Sheet
Appendix P: Additional Conditions of Release
Appendix Q: Order Setting Conditions of Release
Appendix R: Detention Order
Appendix S: California Felony Bail Schedule
Appendix T: Surety Bond Agreement
Appendix U: Sample Motion to Suppress
Appendix V: Plea Colloquy
Appendix W: Jury Summons
Appendix X: Jury Questionnaire
Appendix Y: Presentence Investigation Report
Appendix Z: U.S. Sentencing Guideline Table
Appendix AA: U.S. Sentencing Order
Appendix BB: Notice of Appeal
Appendix CC: Sample Brief
Appendix DD: Sample SCOTUS opinion
Appendix EE: Petition for a Writ of Habeas Corpus

SECTION V: GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Daniel Clay