The positive turn in our economy since the Great Recession of 2007 through 2009 has reconfigured our outlook with regard to employment, inflation, and energy prices, as well as our willingness to spend and consume ...
The recent trend toward increasing global cooperation among blocks of countries was designed to obtain high standards of living for all participants. The authors of Consumer Behavior: An Applied Approach apply this successful principle of interdependency to the field of marketing.
- Every chapter features a cross-functional debate exercise tied to the chapter’s opening vignette. These help students apply the chapter’s principles to other business-related disciplines such as accountancy, management, finance, production, and law.
- Each chapter contains three cross-functional points of view in the Website material. These segments expose students to related disciplines and show them the interrelationship of marketing and consumer behavior to the other functional areas of business: Finance and Economics, Politics, and Strategy and Ethics.
The new 5th edition of Consumer Behavior: An Applied Approach gets the reader involved by featuring:
- An orderly approach to consumer influences. The book starts with the individual influences on behavior and then broadens the perspective to include relevant social/cultural forces.
- Opening vignettes and corresponding Internet exercises to ease readers into each chapter topic.
- “Consumer Behavior in Practice”, “Global Opportunity” and “Ethical Dilemma” vignettes are entertaining and informative applications that tie in the chapter material with thought-provoking questions.
- A running glossary of terms is provided in the page margins to highlight key terms and help students review chapters at a glance.
- A completely integrated online learning website that includes original chapter cases, video links, interactive self-tests, PowerPoint presentations, along with instructor’s resources such as answers to review questions, case solutions, and test bank.
About the Authors
PART 1 Groundwork of the Text
CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Consumer Behavior
What Is Consumer Behavior?
Approaches to the Discipline of Consumer Behavior
What Do Buying Decisions Involve?
Consumer Behavior: The Forces Behind Human Actions
The Role of the Marketing Concept in Exchange Processes
The Influence of Macro Forces on Consumer Behavior
Emerging Trends in Contemporary Society
The Dawn of Marketing-Related Innovations
Safety, Security, and Heightened Anxiety
Global Interdependency and Connectivity
Concern Over Affordability of College Education
Ramifications of Current Trends for Consumers and Marketers
Case Synopsis: What’s in Your Burger?
CHAPTER 2 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning
Segmenting Consumer Markets
Irrelevant Attributes and Positioning
Case Synopsis: A Starbucks Lifestyle Experience
PART 2 Individual Influences on Behavior
CHAPTER 3 Consumer Perception
What Is Perception?
Exposure, Attention, and Sensation
Input Variation and Its Effect on Sensation
Selective Exposure and Attention
Stimulus and Individual Factors of Perception
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing
What the JND Means to Marketers
Situational Influences on Perception
Schema and Scripts
Perception and Images
Imagery and Promotion
Case Synopsis: Guns Anyone?
CHAPTER 4 Consumer Learning and Memory
What Is Learning?
Definition of Learning
Range of Learning Situations
Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
Applications of Conditioning Theories: Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Which Learning Theories Do Marketers Employ?
Learning and Hemispheric Specialization of the Brain
Learning in a Social Context: Vicarious Learning
Habit and Brand Loyalty
Memory and Retention
The Structure of Memory
Extinction and Forgetting
Message Interference and Likelihood of Recall
Case Synopsis: The Attractiveness of Lottery Tickets
CHAPTER 5 Consumer Attitudes
What Are Attitudes?
Valence, Intensity, and Centrality of Attitudes
Sources of Attitudes
Personal Experience with Objects
Exposure to Mass Media, the Internet, and Social Media
The Functions of Attitudes
Do Attitudes Determine Behavior?
The Traditional Model of Attitudes
Behavioral or Conative Component
Attitude Components and Marketing Strategy
Fishbein’s Multiattribute Model of Attitudes
Limitations of the Fishbein Model
The Theory of Reasoned Action
Theories of Goal Pursuit and Trying
How Attitudes Are Formed
How Attitudes Are Changed
The Role of Cognitive Consistency in Attitude Change
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The Role of Information Processing in Attitude Change
Consumer Reaction to Marketers’ Attitude-Related Strategies
Case Synopsis: Inside the War on Coal
CHAPTER 6 Motivation and Emotion
What Is Motivation?
Classifying Consumer Motivations
Conscious versus Unconscious
High versus Low Urgency
Positive versus Negative Polarity
Intrinsic versus Extrinsic
Rational versus Emotional
Elements of Motivation
Theories of Motivation
Other Motivation Research Techniques
The Nature of Human Emotions
Emotion versus Mood
Marketing and Promotional Applications of Emotion
How Emotional Ads Work
Case Synopsis: You Have Nothing to Lose but Your Weight
CHAPTER 7 Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept
What Is Personality?
Diversity of Personality Theories
Freudian Theory of Personality
Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory
Marketing Applications of Trait Theory
The VALS™ System
Marketing Applications of VALS™
Variety of Self-Concepts
Measuring the Self-Concept
Self-Concept and Social Roles
Self-Concept and Consumption
Case Synopsis: Beauty for Billions or Billions for Beauty?
CHAPTER 8 Consumer Decision Making
The Decision Process
Are Consumers Rational?
Effort Variations in Consumer Decision Making
The Nature of the Consumer Decision Process
Types of Search
Identifying and Evaluating Alternative Solutions
Purchase or Commitment
Choosing Among Alternatives
The Selection Process
Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction
Consumer Complaint Intentions and Behavior
Measurement Standards for Customer Satisfaction
To Whom Do Consumers Complain?
What Can Be Done?
Case Synopsis: An Inquiry into the College Choice Process
PART 3 SOCIAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON BEHAVIOR
CHAPTER 9 Diffusion of Innovation
Where Did It All Begin?
The Diffusion Process
What Is a “New” Product?
Multiplicity of New-Product Strategies
Factors That Influence Consumer Acceptance of New Products
Trialability and Divisibility
The Channel of Communication
The Social System
Time and the Adopter Categories
The S-Shaped Diffusion Curve
The Adoption Process
Stages of the Adoption Process
How Typical Are the Stages of Adoption?
Resistance to Adoption
Case Synopsis: Drones: The Pros and the Cons
CHAPTER 10 Group Influence
The Meaning and Importance of Groups
Selected Types of Social Groups
Primary versus Secondary
Formal versus Informal
Planned versus Emergent
Online Communities and Social Networks
Types of Social Power
Social Power Used by Marketers
Types of Reference Groups
Degrees of Reference Group Influence
Reference Group Influence on Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy
Case Synopsis: Teen Peer Pressure
CHAPTER 11 The Family and Generational Cohorts
Family Consumption Roles
The Family Decision Process
Children’s Influence on Family Decision Making
Characteristics of Children’s Shopping
The Family Lifecycle
A Modernized Family Lifecycle
Nontraditional Living-Arrangement Patterns
The Live Alones
Classification of Consumers by Life Experiences
Boomers I Cohort
Boomers II Cohort
Generation X Cohort
Generation Y Cohort (The Millennials)
Generation Z Cohort
Marketing Applications of Generational Cohorts
Case Synopsis: The Issue of Employing Older Workers
CHAPTER 12 Personal Influence and Word of Mouth
Who Are the Opinion Leaders?
Unleashing the Power of Personal Influence and Word of Mouth
Vividness and Impact of Word-of-Mouth Communication
Models of the Influence Process
The Hypodermic Needle Model
The Trickle-Down Model
The Trickle-Across Model
The Two-Step Model
The Multistep Model
Objectives of Influencer Identification
Measuring the Effectiveness of Influencers
Are There Other Sources of Personal Influence?
Strategic Applications of Personal Influence and Word of Mouth
Creating Various Types of Influencers
Combating Negative Word of Mouth
Case Synopsis: Obesity ... and the Expanded Role of Healthcare Providers
CHAPTER 13 Social Class
Introduction to Social Class
The Concept of Social Class
How U.S. Consumers View Social Class
Factors Obscuring the Recognition of Social Class in the United States
Size of the Middle Class
Social Class versus Income
Why Learn about Social Class?
Class Structure in the United States
Multitiered Social Class Structure of the United States
The Upper Class
The Middle Class
The Working Class
The Under Class
The Evolving Social Class Structure of the United States
Implications of Evolving Social Class Trends
Measuring Social Class
Issues Relevant to the Social Class Structure in the United States
The Changing Class Stature of Women
Social Class versus Income
Status Crystallization versus Incongruity
The Over- and Underprivileged
The Impact of Social Class on Consumer Behavior
Case Synopsis: Walmart Chases the Affluent
CHAPTER 14 Culture and Subcultures
The Meaning of Culture
How Is Culture Learned?
Cultural Sensitivity versus Ethnocentrism
How to Assess Culture
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Consumer Behavior in a Cultural Setting
Communication and Language
Beliefs and Attitudes
Values and Norms
Sense of Self
Mental Processes and Learning
Rewards and Recognition
Dress and Appearance
Food and Eating Habits
Black (African-American) Consumers
Hispanic-American (Latino) Consumers
Marketing Implications of Culture and Subcultures
Case Synopsis: Enabling the Disabled