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Contemporary Public Speaking: How to Craft and Deliver a Powerful Speech

Author(s): BAKERSFIELD COLLEGE FOUNDATION , Andrea Thorson, Mark Staller, Michael Korcok, Helen Acosta, John Giertz

Edition: 2

Copyright: 2014

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Contemporary Public Speaking: How to Craft and Deliver a Powerful Speech incorporates multiple voices, perspectives, and approaches to mastering the art of public speaker. This contemporary, collaborative endeavor creates more space for the classroom instructor’s own voice. People of all ages, places in life, and employment situations can benefit from learning how to craft and deliver a powerful speech.

Contemporary Public Speaking: How to Craft and Deliver a Powerful Speech by Andrea D. Thorson-Hevle, Mark L. Staller, and Michael M. Korcok:

  • covers the traditional areas of public speaking, but it also dives deeper than most other texts, into conversations of language, technology, and verbal support.
  • recognizes and addresses the importance of multicultural teaching and diversity in public speaking.
  • is an affordable public speaking package accompanied with an interactive web component for deeper understanding and student engagement.

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1: Introducing Public

Speaking

Mark L. Staller

Part 1: The Power and Purposes of Public

Speaking

Part 2: The Foundations of Public Speaking

Part 3: The Three Rhetorical Appeals

Part 4: The Transactional Communication

Model

Part 5: Public Speaking and Other Forms of

Communication

Part 6: Public Speaking and Ethics

NCA Credo for Ethical

Communication

Summary

Chapter 2: Managing Public

Speaking Anxiety

Mark L. Staller

Part 1: Ten Statements to Gauge Your PSA

Part 2: Ten Causes of PSA

Part 3: Ten Common Symptoms of PSA

Part 4: Ten Ways Not to Manage PSA

Part 5: Ten Ways to Reduce PSA Before Your

Speech

Part 6: Ten Ways to Reduce PSA During Your

Speech

Part 7: Ten Ways to Reduce PSA After Your

Speech

Part 8: Ten Exercises to Help Manage PSA

Part 9: Ten Inaccurate Thoughts Related

to PSA

Part 10: Ten Positive Affirmations to Help

Reduce PSA

Summary

Chapter 3: Considering Your

Audience

Andrea D. Thorson-Hevle

Consider Demographics

Demographics

Sex and Gender

Ethnicity

Age

Occupation

Disability

Education

Social, Political, and Other Cultural

Groups

Consider Psychographics

Attitudes

Values

Beliefs

Consider Occasion

Consider the Needs of the Audience

Consider the Speech Setting

Consider Means of Delivery

Summary

Chapter 4: Choosing a Speech

Topic 

Michael M. Korcok

Chapter Overview

Getting to Your Thesis

The Speaking Situation

The Audience

The Speaker

General Purpose

Speeches to Inform

Speeches to Persuade

Special Occasion Speeches

Specific Purpose

Generating Ideas for Topics

Specific Purpose Walkthrough

Thesis Statement

Exceptional Thesis Statements

Common Mistakes

Summary

Chapter 5: Researching for

Your Speech

Andrea D. Thorson-Hevle

Evidence

Organize Your Research

Copy the Material You Will Actually Be

Using

Create a Working Reference Page

Put All of the Above Material in One

File

General Principles for Evaluating Evidence

It Must Be Relevant

It Must Be Generalizable

It Must Be Current

The Evidence Must Be Credible

The Evidence Must Be Trustworthy

It Must Display Competence

It Must Be Ethical

Potential Sources For Your Speech

Print Forms and Online Forms

Scholarly Journals

News Sources and Magazines

Documents and Reports

Encyclopedias, Dictionaries,

Almanacs 100

Books 100

Experience-Based Research 100

Interviews 100

Personal Experience 101

Nonprint Materials 102

Radio and Television Broadcasts 102

Online Sources 102

Evaluating Online Sources 104

Paraphrasing, Quoting, and Citing

Research 105

Summary 107

Chapter 6: Developing Verbal

Support 109

Mark Staller, Andrea Thorson-Hevle,

and Stef Donev

1. Definitions

When and How to Use Definitions

2. Facts

When and How to Use Facts

3. Surveys

When and How to Use Surveys

4. Statistics

When and How to Use Statistics

5. Comparisons

Extended Analogies

When and How to Use

Comparisons

6. Testimonies

When and How to Use Testimonies

7. Proverbs and Other Pithy Sayings

When and How to Use Proverbs and

Other Pithy Sayings

8. Examples

When and How to Use Examples

9. Stories

When and How to Tell Stories

10. Jokes

Type of Jokes

When and How to Tell Jokes

Paraphrasing and Quoting

Quoting

Paraphrasing

Verbally Citing Your Sources

Oral Citations with Different Types

of Verbal Support

Summary

Chapter 7: Organizing Your

Speech

Michael M. Korcok

Benefits of Speech Organization

Speech Organization Overview

The Introduction

Functions of the Introduction

Structure of the Introduction

Types of Openings

The Conclusion

Functions of the Conclusion

Structure of the Conclusion

The Body

Main Points

Transitions

Ordering Main Points

Summary

Chapter 8: Outlining Your

Speech

Mark L. Staller

Chapter 8 Outline

Part 1: The General Purposes Of Outlining

Part 2: General Guidelines For Outlining

General Guideline #1: Use Numbers and

Letters to Label Your Main Points and

Subpoints

General Guideline #2: Indent to Make

Your Main Points and Subpoints

Stand Out

General Guideline #3: Subdivide When

You Have Two or More Points to

Make

Part 3: Extemporaneous Preparation

Outlines

How to Make a Preparation

Outline

Part 4: Extemporaneous Delivery

Outlines

How to Make a Delivery Outline

Part 5: Impromptu Scratch Outlines

How to Make an Impromptu Scratch

Outline

How to Use an Impromptu Scratch

Outline

Part 6: Less Conventional Ways to Prepare and

Present a Speech

Summary

Chapter 9: Delivering Your

Speech

Mark L. Staller

The Visual and Aural Elements of Delivery

The Visual Elements of Delivery

The Aural Elements of Public

Speaking

The Four Major Types of Delivery

Impromptu Delivery

Manuscript Delivery

Memorized Delivery

Extemporaneous Delivery

Summary

Chapter 10: Making and Using

Presentation Aids

Andrea D. Thorson-Hevle

Graphs and Charts

Bar Chart

Line Chart

Pie Chart

Doughnut Chart

Pictograph

Table

Flow Chart

Tangible Objects/Props

Poster Board/Large Image Board

Transparencies

Handouts

Whiteboards/Chalkboards

Audio/Visual

Sensory Aids

Technological/Software-Based Presentation

Aids

Smart Boards

Software-Based Technologies

Repetition

Proximity and Alignment

High Quality Images

Edit Nonessentials

Creativity

The Five to Eight Rule

Powerpoint Design

Summary

Chapter 11: Using Technology:

A Quick Reference Guide

Helen Acosta

Consider the Space

Consider the Preparation Process

Learning to Love the Cloud

Consider Design

Good Design vs. Bad Design

Vision Trumps All Other Senses

Share One Idea at a Time

Simple is Better

Stimulate Multiple Senses

Use Evocative Images

PowerPoint Design Reminders from

Chapter 10

Mediated Presentations

Important Terms to Understand

Regarding

Mediated

Presentations

Preparing for Mediated

Presentations

Avoid Teleprompter Apps

Free Software Options

Backup Plans

Delivery Tips

Summary

Chapter 12: Critiquing and

Listening to Speeches

Neeley Hatridge and Vaun Thygerson

Hearing vs. Listening

The Listening Process

Selecting

Attending

Understanding

Evaluating

Recalling

Responding

Why Do We Listen?

Listening for Information and

Comprehension

Empathic Listening

Critical and Evaluative Listening

Appreciative Listening

Listening for Cultural

Understanding

Types of Listeners

Barriers to Listening

Types of Noise: Physical, Physiological,

Psychological, and Semantic

Poor Listening Habits

Listen More Effectively

Active Listening

Listening LADDER

Evaluating Your Listening Skills

Nonjudgmental Feedback

Dialogue Enhancers

Honor Silence

Practice Listening

Importance of Evaluating Oral

Presentation

Items for Evaluation: Structure, Content,

and Delivery

Structure

Content

Delivery

Process of Evaluating

The External Process

Essentials in Evaluation

Types of Feedback

The Psychology of Feedback

Self-Worth Theory

Self-Efficacy

When You Are Evaluated

Self-Feedback

Summary

Chapter 13: Using Language

Effectively

Andrea D. Thorson-Hevle

Language and Meaning

Language Tools

Meaningful Language

Vivid Language

Simple Language

Stylistic Language

Language as Power

Approach Language with Culture

in Mind

Oppressive Language to Avoid

Sexist Language

Sexuality/Gender

Ethnic Language

Disability Language

Physical Disability

Sensory Disability

Intellectual Disability

Summary

Chapter 14: Reasoning 329

John Giertz

Key Concepts

Aristotle’s Rhetorical Reasoning

Inductive Logic: Three Key Points

Generalization

Cause-Effect

Sign

Analogy

Toulmin’s Model of Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning

Fallacies of Logic

Fallacies

Summary

Chapter 15: Speaking to

Inform 

Debra D. Thorson

Informative Speaking: What It Is and What

It Is Not

Selecting Your Topic

Goals

Objective

Be Credible, Timely, and Accurate

Significant

Clarity

Narrow Your Topic

Research

Introduction

Body

Conclusion

How We Learn

Organization Matters

Types of Informative Speech

A Speech to Describe

A Speech to Explain

A Speech to Demonstrate

Example of a Demonstration

Speech

The Importance of Ethics in an Informative

Speech

Summary

Chapter 16: Speaking

to Persuade

Helen Acosta

Persuasion Defined

The Persuasive Impulse

It’s All in Our Heads!

Neurological Landmines that Obliterate

Persuasion

Neurological Keys that Open

Minds

Focus On Who You Hope to Persuade

Four Types of Audiences

Frame Your Issue

Organize Your Speech for Maximum

Impact

Summary

Chapter 17: Speaking for

Special Occasions

Michael M. Korcok

Introduction

Special Occasion Speaking

Types of Special Occasion Speeches

The Speech of Introduction

The Speech of Welcome

The Speech of Farewell

The Speech of Presentation

The Acceptance Speech

The Dedication Speech

The Commencement Speech

The Speech of Tribute

The Eulogy

Types of Entertainment Speeches

Toasts

After-Dinner Presentations

Impromptu Speeches

Humor

Exaggeration Joke

Beware the Joke-Joke

Summary

About the Authors

BAKERSFIELD COLLEGE FOUNDATION

Andrea Thorson

Andrea Thorson-Hevle is a dedicated professor and author. With community college work from Bakersfield College, a BA from Bradley University, a MA from California State University, Long Beach, and some doctoral work from the University of California, Santa Barbara, Andrea has collected a variety of degrees. Her favorite areas of interest include: women’s studies, interpersonal communication, disability, education, law, and language. She has published several books in the Communication discipline and enjoys giving invited lectures on issues of oppression, women, and education.

Andrea is currently teaching pubic speaking, small group, interpersonal, and rhetoric and argumentation courses at Bakersfield College in Bakersfield, CA. She thanks her parents James and Debra Thorson for their sacrifices and faith that lead her to a successful life, as well as her dear friend Sarah Crachiolo for her support and humor through the years. She is especially grateful to her loving husband Justin for his unwavering encouragement and for giving her the three greatest blessings of her life: Montgomery, Sebastian, and James.

Mark Staller

I belong to several academic co-cultures. As a student in a Great Books program at Saint Mary’s College in Moraga, California, I earned a BA in Liberal Arts and was the recipient of the Thomas Aquinas Award for outstanding achievement in the Liberal Arts. At the University of California at Berkeley I earned an MA and PhD in Rhetoric. My doctoral areas of concentration were rhetoric and philosophy in the classical world, modern rhetorical theory, and the rhetoric of philosophy. After completing my doctoral work, I taught for about 4 years at several Central Valley colleges in three different academic disciplines, English, Philosophy, and Speech. I taught courses in basic writing, research writing, technical writing, public speaking, critical thinking, and Introduction to Philosophy. Some of my academic identities, therefore, are writing instructor, speech instructor, liberal arts generalist, rhetorician, and philosopher.

For the past 22 years, I have taught full-time as a Professor of Communication at Bakersfield College. For my first 5 years, I alternated with my colleague Helen Acosta as coach and assistant coach of the Bakersfield College Speech and Debate Team, so Helen and I first developed our professional relationship as members of the California Speech and Debate community. For the past 17 years, I have been teaching Communication courses at Bakersfield College, including Public Speaking, Rhetoric and Argumentation, Intercultural Communication, Interpersonal Communication, and Small Group Communication. Collaborating with my colleagues in the Communication Department, I am a principle coauthor of four Communication textbooks: Contemporary Public Speaking: How to Craft and Deliver a Powerful Speech; Small Group Work in the Real World: A Practical Approach; Let’s Get Personal: Creating Successful Relationships Through Effective Interpersonal Communication; and, now, Intercultural Communication: Building Relationships and Skills.

In addition to my academic co-cultures, the primary co-culture I am involved in outside of my college career is the conservative Christian co-culture. I have been an active member of my church denomination since I was a small child, and I have pastored a small church in Tehachapi, California, for about the past 20 years. For a large part of my life, I have travelled back and forth between this traditional religious co-culture and the secular academic co-culture. Studying and teaching Intercultural Communication has helped me to clarify and claim both of these major parts of my personal identity.

Studying and teaching intercultural communication has also helped me to discover my German roots. Although my last name is “Staller,” until 11 years ago (when I first started teaching Intercultural Communication) I only thought of myself as American—I had almost no ethnic identity. On an unconscious level, I had disassociated myself from anything German because I primarily thought of Adolf Hitler and Nazis when I thought of German culture. After researching my family background and my German heritage, I can now write proudly that I am German-American. The Stallers, I have learned, were German Lutheran farmers who immigrated to the eastern part of the United States in the late 1800s. I hope that my Intercultural Communication students can have similar experiences getting in touch with their own co-cultures and their own personal identities.

I wrote Chapter 1 (The Foundations of Intercultural Communication), Chapter 2 (Appreciating Both Sameness and Difference), Chapter 5 (Nonverbal Communication), Chapter 6 (Approaches to Conflict), and Chapter 7 (Values and Worldviews).

Michael Korcok

By the time you’re reading this, Michael is probably rich and famous and you have seen the videos and specials. In case we are not living in those possible worlds, a few words may be in order.

Michael was born in what used to be called Yugoslavia and his parents brought the family to the United States in the late 1960s. He grew up in the Midwest, joined the high school debate team, and competitive speaking transformed a shy bookish nerd into an outgoing, competitive, bookish nerd. For the next twenty-five years or so, he remained in intercollegiate policy debate as a competitor, coach, and program director.

Michael’s education has been all over the map, but he earned a BS in communication from Southern Illinois University and an MA in Rhetoric from Kansas State University. He has been teaching at Bakersfield College for more than a decade and these have been the most rewarding years of his life. He has been teaching Public Speaking for nearly three decades and has evaluated at least seventeen thousand speeches by more than four thousand students. Michael Korcok has experienced ears.

Michael’s life has been immeasurably enlivened by the love of his life and wife, Jessica. Their son John Edward is a minute-by-minute reminder of how amazing this world, among all possible worlds, is.

He is and always will be grateful to his mother Katerina and father Janko for a life filled with opportunity.

Helen Acosta

From my earliest memories college was an important co-culture in my life. When I was in preschool my dad was in college. First, he studied at Orange Coast College, and then he transferred to Long Beach State to complete his Bachelor’s Degree as well as his Master’s Degree in Communication. Once he completed his degree he was hired as an instructor and Speech and Debate coach at Bakersfield College. From 2nd grade through 10th grade I lived less than a mile from Bakersfield College, I grew up playing in the hallways where I work today. While college has always been part of my life, and an expected destiny, my own academic journey was one of struggle. As a dyslexic, even after a year of tutoring with a reading specialist, I often felt less intelligent than other students at school. I struggled with the work. My teachers were often disappointed because my large vocabulary and verbal skills gave them the expectation that I was above average but my written academic skills were far lower than many of my peers. I never saw myself as an academic but I knew that I loved learning new things and making new connections between ideas. My joys in school were always performance based: band, choir, and drama. Music was my major when I enrolled in college. In my first semester I also joined my dad’s Speech and Debate team. I struggled in my music classes and I excelled on the Speech and Debate team. I became a national champion and I learned to support the work of my teammates as a peer coach. I decided to become a Speech and Debate coach and became a Communication major when I entered my junior year of college. While I continued to struggle in courses outside of my major I thrived in my Communication courses, earning first a Bachelor’s Degree in Communication and then a Master’s Degree, both from CSU, Northridge. While in school I coached the Speech and Debate team at Los Angeles Valley College. A few months after graduation, I was hired as an instructor and Speech and Debate coach at Bakersfield College. After years in Southern California it felt good to return home.

Over 20 years ago, Mark Staller joined me as a coach and instructor in the Communication department at BC. On the surface it appears that Mark and I are exact opposites: I am extremely liberal, he is extremely conservative; I am a secular atheist, he is a devout Christian; I have no interest in ever having children, he has two wonderful adult children. Even our brains work differently. His ability to categorize ideas, ponder philosophical constructs, and conceptualize complex ideas simply astounds me. My understandings of the world do not tend toward the philosophical. I tend toward concrete understandings of the world. All those difference do not hold a candle to the similarities that have kept our friendship harmonious for 2 decades. We are both in love with learning, we are passionate about our work, we both have “absentminded professor” tendencies, and we both put family at the center of our lives. These similarities balance our differences.

Well into my 40s, I remained the youngest faculty member in the Communication Department at Bakersfield College. Luckily, 5 years ago we hired Bryan Hirayama. Bryan’s youth belies by his wideranging experience and expertise. Bryan gives me a glimpse of many experiences of the world that are far from my own. He and his active young family have a lifestyle that might be featured in a fitness magazine. Bryan has traveled and lived outside of the US, neither Mark or I share his global understanding. Beyond Bryan’s athleticism and cosmopolitan experiences, he has a drive and determination that inspires me.

Two years ago we were lucky to hire one of our long-time adjunct faculty, Talita Pruett, Talita’s love of Intercultural Communication initially brought us together and her knowledge, both theoretical and first-hand as a first generation American who moved here in College, consistently inspires me. Talita is part of a new generation of faculty at Bakersfield College who are teaching full-time and raising their young families. Her office is right next door to mine. I look forward to our, almost daily, conversation about our students, our work and our families.

 Today, after 23 years at Bakersfield College, I have a wide variety of communities of which I am a part. I discuss these communities in the chapter titled, “Our Multifaceted Selves.” For my entire career I have taught between three and five public speaking courses per semester. I authored two chapters of the textbook Contemporary Public Speaking: How to Craft and Deliver a Powerful Speech. In the early 2000s, I also began teaching Persuasion and I began teaching Intercultural Communication in 2008. Intercultural Communication, more than any other course I have ever taken or taught, has changed my approach to all of my interactions. When any instructor I meet says they would like to start teaching Intercultural Communication I always say “Get ready! It will change you!” . . . and it does! The skills necessary to be an effective intercultural communicator are all learnable and, as authors, we hope that this text will help you recognize, practice and begin to master them.

 The relationship in my life that has taught me more about Intercultural Communication than any other is my relationship with my husband, Enrique. Enrique has provided me a window into a world entirely unlike my own. Together, over the last 27 years, we have created a two-person culture of our own. Without him my life would be far less exciting. Enrique has introduced me to more co-cultures than I ever imagined: Comic book and Science Fiction (and their conventions), Medieval Recreation Societies, Community Theatre, Hard Rock musicians, actors, composers, theater companies, and coffee aficionados. Together we have been poets, play producers, and members of a community chorus we co-founded. His life before we met was my polar opposite. He pushes me toward adventure and helps me check my perceptions when I would not notice the need on my own. . . . and he keeps me from wandering out into traffic . . . which is tremendously helpful. I wrote Chapter 8 (History vs. Histories), Chapter 9 (Our Multifaceted Identities), Chapter 4 (Verbal Communication), and Chapter 3 (Adaptation and Empathy).

John Giertz

John has taught public speaking, argumentation, persuasion, and forensics for over twenty-nine years, the last twenty-five at Bakersfield College. John has a BA and an MA in Speech Communication and a PhD in Rhetoric from Regent University. He has authored numerous papers for presentations and publications primarily in the areas of persuasion, political communication, and argumentation.

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