Modern criminal profiling, primarily developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), is an investigative aid used to help solve complex, violent crimes. The methods employed by FBI-trained profilers have been the topic of much scrutiny and debate, primarily by academics and amateur practitioners.
Criminal Investigative Analysis describes the origin, theories, and concepts used by the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit to investigate and analyze violent crimes. Criminal profiling is an often-misunderstood discipline within modern criminal justice. Since the 1980s, the media has popularized criminal profiling in films such as Silence of the Lambs and Mindhunters and television shows such as Profiler and Criminal Minds. This idealized image suggests profiling will produce quick solutions to unsolvable crimes through a mystical intuitive process. The purpose of this text is to place criminal investigative analysis and its component, criminal profiling, in the context of a law enforcement investigation technique from the perspective of an FBI-trained profiler.
Criminal Investigative Analysis:
- explains how analyzing criminal behavior has emerged as a method of developing lead information, especially in cases with few leads developed from traditional investigation pathways
- teaches students how logical thought processes guide criminal investigative analysis
- offers a historical and theoretical foundation that assists students in understanding the process of criminal investigative analysis
- discusses the influence of mental disorders on violent crime behavior
- provides a framework for the criminal investigative analysis process
- features the application of criminal investigative analysis to various violent crimes including murder, sex crimes, crimes against children, risk and threat assessment, arson, and bombing
PART I FOUNDATIONS OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 1 HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS
What Is Behavioral Analysis in Criminal Investigations?
What Is the History of Criminal Profiling?
The Whitechapel Murders—Jack the Ripper
The Mad Bomber of New York
How Did the Federal Bureau of Investigation Develop Behavioral Science in Criminal Investigations?
The Behavioral Science Unit
Applied Criminology and Crime Analysis
National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime
How Does the FBI Organize the Behavioral Sciences Today?
What Is Criminal Investigative Analysis and What Are Its Applications?
Profiles of Unknown Offenders
Critical Incident Evaluations
Search Warrant Assistance
Prosecution and Trial Strategies
CHAPTER 2 THE CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATION OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS
What Is the Basic Principle of Criminal Investigative Analysis?
Behavior Reflects Personality
What Is the Criminal Investigative Analysis Paradigm?
Possible Versus Probable
Consistent Versus Inconsistent
Expected Versus Unexpected
What Are the Stages of a Crime Where Offense Behaviors Are Observed?
During the Offense
Consistent and Expected Behavior
Inconsistent and Unexpected Behavior
CHAPTER 3 THE LOGIC OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS
What Is Logical Reasoning?
What Limits the Use of Logical Processes and How Does CIA Address the Problem?
What Is the Process of Criminal Investigative Analysis?
Structured Professional Judgment
Structured Professional Judgment and the Scientific Method Applied to Criminal Investigative Analysis
The Criminal Investigative Analysis Process
CHAPTER 4 INFLUENCES ON OFFENDER BEHAVIOR: MENTAL DISORDERS
What Is Abnormal Psychology?
Theories of Abnormal Psychology
Classifying and Diagnosing Abnormal Psychology
What Abnormal Psychology Is Observed in Violent Crime?
How Does CIA Address Mental Disorders?
CHAPTER 5 HOW DOES FORENSIC SCIENCE CONTRIBUTE TO CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS?
What Is the Process of Evidence Identification and Collection?
Forensic Science Laboratory—Trace Evidence
Blood and Body Fluids
Firearms and Toolmarks
Chemistry and Forensic Toxicology
Time of Death
Examination, Autopsy, and Evidence Recovery
Cause and Manner of Death
Documentation of Autopsy Findings
Forensic Pathology and Criminal Investigative Analysis
CHAPTER 6 THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT AND PLACE ON CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS
What Is the Influence of Crime Analysis on the Study of Crime Geography?
What Is Environmental Criminology?
Rational Choice Theory
What Is Journey-to-Crime Research?
How Do Offenders Hunt for Victims?
What Is Geographic Profiling?
What Are the Assumptions of Geographic Profiling?
What Factors Affect a Geographic Profile?
What Is Reported in the Geographic Profile?
How Is the Geographic Profile Used in Criminal Investigations?
Routine Activity Theory
Crime Pattern Theory
Dr. Kevin Kelm retired from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) as a Supervisory Special Agent with over 35 years of law enforcement experience. He is a retired Certified Fire Investigator, Certified Explosives Specialist, and an FBI-trained criminal profiler. Dr. Kelm was assigned to the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit -1 (terrorism, WMD, arson, bombing) at the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. He has taught the topics of criminal profiling, arson, and bombing investigation throughout the US, Canada, Mexico, Australia, the UK, and to US and coalition troops in Afghanistan. He has testified as an expert witness in state and federal courts in the US and the Supreme Court of Canada. Dr. Kelm developed a course and teaches about criminal profiling for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is a Research Fellow at the Texas State University, Center for Geospatial Intelligence and Investigation.