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Critical Approaches to Reading, Writing and Thinking

Author(s): Ric Baker, Vivian Beitman

Edition: 3

Copyright: 2019

Pages: 430

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College reading and writing is challenging. Students must take in a tremendous amount of information, make sense of it, and see how it fits into their understanding of the world.

Moreover, modern students get their information from a wide variety of sources (Internet, print, media), so now perhaps more than ever they need the ability to read and think critically so that they can evaluate quality and reliability.

Critical Approaches to Reading, Writing and Thinking creates “lifestyle” critical readers, writers, and thinkers rather than just teaching the skills of critical reading, writing, and thinking.

Designed for students in mid to upper-level reading and writing classes at 2 and 4 year schools, Critical Approaches to Reading, Writing and Thinking presents instruction and exercises in straightforward and direct language.

Critical Approaches to Reading, Writing and Thinking:

  • Thoroughly explains what is involved in being a critical thinker (in terms of the skills and traits), then it systematically teaches each skill and trait in relation to reading and writing.
  • Is based on the most current research by scholars such as Facione, Paul, and Van Gelder.
  • Integrates reading selections from a variety of different sources, including textbooks, blogs and editorials, magazines and newspapers, and fiction.
  • Is organized into two parts: Part One thoroughly defines critical thinking, describes the character traits and skills of a critical thinker; and Part Two provide students with opportunities to apply all the skills they have acquired as they read and write about a variety of texts.

Preface to the Instructor
Preface to the Student
Acknowledgments

Part 1 Learning to Read, Write, and Think Critically
Chapter 1 Becoming a Critical Thinker, Reader, and Writer

SECTION ONE
The Meaning of Critical Thinking
Thinking Critically
Facts about Critical Thinking
The Benefits of Critical Thinking
The Critical Thinker’s Attitude toward the World
Be Curious (Chapter 2)
Curiosity in Practice
Be Humble (Chapter 3)
Humility in Practice
Be Open-Minded and Flexible (Chapter 4)
Open-mindedness and Flexibility in Practice
Be Organized (Chapter 5)
Organization in Practice
Be Skeptical (Chapter 6)
Skepticism in Practice
Be Fair-Minded (Chapter 7)
Fair-mindedness in Practice
Trust in Reason (Chapter 8)
Reason in Practice
Be Persistent (Chapter 9)
Persistence in Practice
The Skills of a Critical Thinker
Comprehension (Chapter 2)
Interpretation (Chapter 3)
Inference (Chapter 4)
Self-Monitoring (Chapter 5)
Analysis (Chapter 6)
Evaluation (Chapter 7)
Explanation (Chapter 8)
Problem-Solving (Chapter 9)
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: Is Anyone Ever Wrong Anymore?, Mitch Daniels

SECTION TWO
Things That Can Get in the Way of Critical Thinking
Obstacles Caused by the Way We Think
Rationalizing
Confirmation Bias
Memory Errors
Obstacles Caused by our Emotions
Attribution Mistakes
Wishful Thinking
Conformity
Defense Mechanisms
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: Is Google Making Us Stupid? What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, Nicholas Carr

Chapter 2 Comprehension
SECTION ONE
What Is Comprehension?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Being Curious
Becoming a Better Reader
Identifying the Topic
Survey and Predict
Surveying
Use Visual Clues
Use Text Features
Ask Questions
Predicting
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: Interaction with Peers (Student–Student Interaction)

SECTION TWO
Developing Vocabulary
Context Clues
Definitions
Synonym Clues
Antonym Clues
Example Clues
Word Parts
Glossaries
Dictionaries
Real-World Mistakes of Comprehension and Their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: Use All of Your Senses

Chapter 3 Interpretation
SECTION ONE
What Is Interpretation?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Humility
Determining Significance
Identifying Main Ideas and Details
Step One: Note the Topic
Step Two: Look for Word Clues that the Author Uses to Organize Ideas and Indicate Importance
Transitions
Emotive Words
Step Three: Look for Details
Distinguishing between Major and Minor Details
Step Four: Putting It All Together: Identifying Main Ideas
Stated and Implied Main Ideas
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: Hormones’ Complex Role in Human Sexuality, David Perlman

SECTION TWO
Annotating
Clarifying Meaning
Summarizing and Paraphrasing
Summarizing
Reading: The Importance of Critical Thinking, Lane Wallace
Paraphrasing
Deciphering Misleading, Unclear, or Ambiguous Language
Being Deliberately Vague
Ambiguous Terms and Ambiguous Statements
Euphemisms and Doublespeak
Outlining and Mapping
Outlining
Mapping
Contents
Real-World Mistakes of Interpretation and their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: 5 Things We Know to Be True, Michael Shermer, Harriet Hall, Ray Pierrehumbert, Paul Offit, and Seth Shostak

Chapter 4 Inference
SECTION ONE
What Is Inference?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Being Open-Minded and Flexible
Making Inferences
AIM for Appropriate Conclusions
Inferring an Author’s Audience
Inferring an Author’s Purpose
Inferring an Author’s Tone
Inferring Word Connotation
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: “Black Panther” Hype and Success Shows Importance of Representation, Proma Khosla

SECTION TWO
Recognizing Assumptions
Recognizing Implications
Real-World Mistakes of Inference and Their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: Excerpt from Smile or Die: The Bright Side of Cancer, Barbara Ehrenreich

Chapter 5 Self-Monitoring
SECTION ONE
What Is Self-Monitoring?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Becoming Organized in Your Life and in Your Thinking
Recognizing Worldviews
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: Body Ritual among the Nacirema, Horace Miner

SECTION TWO
Recognizing Biases
Using the Writing Situation to Determine Bias
Using Language to Determine Bias
Monitoring Your Thinking​
Metacognition
The Planning Phase
The Control Phase
The Reflection Phase
Changing Your Mind
Real-World Mistakes of Self-Monitoring and Their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Self-Monitoring
Reading: Kids R Not Us: Embracing the Decision Not to Procreate, Katherine Seligman

Chapter 6 Analysis
SECTION ONE
What Is Analysis?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Being Skeptical
Analyzing Arguments
Identifying Arguments
Evidence
Kinds of Evidence
Testimony
Facts and Statistics
Analogies
Hypotheticals
Counter-Evidence
Assumptions
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: The Ghosts We Think We See, Sharon Begley

SECTION TWO
Logic
Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Argument Mapping
Advanced Argument Mapping
Analyzing Patterns of Organization
Cause and Effect
Chronological/Process
Classification
Comparison/Contrast
Definition
Example
Listing
Mixed
The Scientific Method
Steps in the Scientific Method
Pseudoscience
Real-World Mistakes of Analysis and their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: Ghost Hunting Tools of the Trade, Brian Dunning

Chapter 7 Evaluation
SECTION ONE
What Is Evaluation?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Being Fair-Minded
Evaluating Arguments
Evaluating Evidence
Determine Relevance
Verify Sufficiency
Telling Apart Fact, Opinion, and Reasoned Judgment
Verify Accuracy
Evaluate Source and Author Credibility
Evaluating Source Credibility
Evaluating Print Sources
Evaluating Online Sources
Evaluating Author Credibility
Reading: Why So Many Killer Tornadoes?
Evaluating an Organization’s Credibility
Checklists for Evaluating the Credibility of Organizations
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: On Overconfidence, James Fowler and Dominic Johnson

SECTION TWO
Evaluating Assumptions
Evaluating Logic
Evaluating Deductive Arguments
Examples
Answers and explanations
Contents
Evaluating Inductive Arguments
Recognizing Informal Fallacies
Using Argument Maps in Evaluation
Real-World Mistakes of Evaluation and Their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section Two
Reading: “Crack Baby” Study Ends with Unexpected but Clear Result, Susan Fitzgerald

Chapter 8 Explanation
What Is Explanation?
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Traits: Trusting Your Reasoning
Writing to Explain Using the 5 Es
Patterns of Development in Writing
Use Graphic Organizers to Organize Your Ideas
Writing about Reading
Reading: Mouthing Off in America, Stephen Randall
Critical Response Writing
Sample Critical Response: “Mouthing Off in America” by Stephen Randall
Critical Analysis Writing
Sample Critical Analysis: “Mouthing Off in America” by Stephen Randall
Journal Writing
Sample Journal Entry: “Mouthing Off in America” by Stephen Randall
Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
Oral Communication
Real-World Mistakes of Explanation and Their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Explanation
Adhering to the Standards: Grammar
Significance
Clarity
Accuracy
Completeness
Fairness
Relevance
Titles: Italics or Quotation Marks?
Quotations: Where to Put Punctuation?
First, Second, or Third Person Point of View?
Contractions and Abbreviations?

Chapter 9 Problem-Solving
What Is Problem-Solving?
Reading and Writing as Problem-Solving
Reviewing the Critical Thinker’s Attitude: Being Persistent
Describe the Problem
Acknowledge the Problem
Define the Problem
Clarify the Desired Outcome
Describing Reading and Writing Problems
Reading: The Purpose of Education, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Break Down the Problem
Note the Parts of the Problem
Identify Similar Problems You’ve Solved in the Past
Identify Theoretical Knowledge
Make a General Plan
Breaking down Reading and Writing Problems
Construct Solutions
Do Not Artificially Limit Yourself
Brainstorm Possible Solutions
Consider Advantages and Disadvantages of Solutions
Use the Hypothetical Deductive Method
Constructing Solutions for Reading and Writing Problems
Evaluate the Solution
Evaluate the Solution before Implementing It
Evaluate the Solution after Implementing It
Evaluating Solutions for Reading and Writing Problems
Real-World Mistakes of Problem-Solving and their Consequences
Chapter Summary
Read, Write, and Think Critically: Section One
Reading: Homophobia Doesn’t Just Oppress Gay People, It Affects Us All, David Hudson

Part II Thinking Critically about Current Issues
Putting It All Together
Gun Violence and Gun Control
1. “We Can’t Stop Mass Murder” Shikha Dalmia
2. “Ban Guns” Paul Waldman
3. “What Explains U.S. Mass Shootings? International Comparisons Suggest an Answer” Max Fisher and Josh Keller

Technology Addiction
1. “Why You Can’t Stop Checking Your Phone” Leon Neyfakh
2. “Does Social Media Addiction Really Exist?” Catherine Knibbs
3. “Google’s Former Ethicist Says Better Design Is Key to Tackling Our Tech Addiction” Jenny Anderson

Peace and War
1. “Humans Evolved to Have an Instinct for Deadly Violence, Researchers Find” Ian Johnston
2. “On Peace” Daniel Zajfman
3. “On the Perils of Indifference” Elie Wiesel

Self-Driving Cars
1. “Who’s Making Sure That Self-Driving Cars Are Safe?” Ruth Reader
2. “Here’s How Self-Driving Cars Could Catch On” David Roberts
3. “To Get the Most out of Self-Driving Cars, Tap the Brakes on Their Rollout” Jack Barkenbus

Women’s Issues
1. “Julia Pastrana: A Monster to the Whole World” Bess Lovejoy
2. “A Shortage of Women” Terry L. Jones
3. “Why We Still Need Feminism” Casey Cavanagh

Appendix: Word Parts
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

Ric Baker

Vivian Beitman

This is the only book I will not cash in for my money, I'm keeping it. It is well structured and self-explanatory.
Anonymous Comment From Student Semester Evaluation

Related ISBN's: 9781524955946, 9781524984007

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