RETURN TO SEARCH RESULTS

Discovering the Teacher Within You: An Introduction to Education in North Carolina

Author(s): Sara Simmons

Edition: 2

Copyright: 2019

Pages: 360

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As an aspiring teacher, you are invited to embark on an exploration of the exciting profession of teaching. With content that is stimulating, memorable, and motivating, this textbook will entice you to experience the joy of “discovering the teacher within you.”

Using a nautical theme, Discovering the Teacher Within You: An Introduction to Education in North Carolina will take you on a journey of discovery to find out what it is like to be a teacher in today’s schools and classrooms. On your voyage, you will acquire knowledge of the philosophical, historical, sociological, legal, financial, and structural foundations of education, and you will have frequent opportunities to analyze and reflect on contemporary issues, problems, and trends in the field of education.

Unique to the market, this textbook is written from the perspective of teaching in North Carolina, and the chapters include a considerable amount of information that is specific to teaching in “the Old North State.” However, much of the content is relevant to learning about the teaching profession, no matter where you may desire to teach.

Climb aboard and prepare to set sail! Anchors aweigh!

Brief Table of Contents

Expanded Table of Contents

EXPANDED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Epigraph
Dedication and Memorial
Interactive Writing Activities
Preface
Introduction
About the Author

Chapter 1 Exploring the Teaching Profession
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About Choosing Teaching as Your Profession
Key Terms
Exploring the Teaching Profession

Charting Your Course
What Matters Most?
Why Do People Choose to Teach?
How Can You Become More Knowledgeable About the Field of Education?
Where Can Current Information About American Education Be Located?
Who Are the Students Attending Our Nation’s Schools?
Who Teaches in Our Nation’s Schools?
What Are Other Interesting Statistics About U.S. Schools?
Where Can Current Information About Education in North Carolina Be Found?"
Who Are the Students Attending North Carolina’s Schools?
Who Teaches in North Carolina’s Schools?
What Are Other Interesting Statistics About North Carolina Schools?
Why Is It Important for You to Be Informed About Major Issues in K-12 Education?
What Are the Characteristics of a Profession?
Is Teaching a Profession?
What Are Standards?
What Professional Teaching Standards Are Teachers Expected to Meet?
What Professional Teaching Standards Have Been Developed at the National Level?
What Are North Carolina’s Professional Standards for Educators?
Why Are Your State’s Professional Standards for Educators Important to You?
What Are the Duties and Responsibilities of Teachers?
What Are Teachers Paid?
What Is the Average Salary for Teachers?
Are Average Teacher Salary Comparisons Valid?
Are Teachers Compensated Fairly for the Work That They Do?
What Can You Do Now to Learn More About the Teaching Profession?
The Big Idea—Exploring the Teaching Profession

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 2 Treasuring the Diversity Around You
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Developing an Understanding and Appreciation of Diversity
Key Terms
Treasuring the Diversity Around You

Charting Your Course
What Is Meant by the Term “Diversity”?
A Quotation to Ponder—A Mind-altering Learning Process
What Does It Mean to Have a Cultural Identity?
How Can Teachers Be Responsive to the Diversity of Students?
A Quotation to Ponder—Diversity Enriches Our Lives
How Do Schools Educate English Language Learners?
What Are “Special Needs”?
What Are Some Key Laws That Govern Special Education Programs?
What Is Inclusion?
What Are the Pros and Cons of Inclusion?
What Is the Current Status of the Educational Placements of Students with Disabilities?
What About Gifted Learners?
What About Children Who Live in Poverty?
What Can You Do Now to Prepare to Teach Diverse Students?
A Quotation to Ponder—An UNESCO Official Defines Diversity
The Big Idea—Understanding and Appreciating Diversity

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 3 Charting an Environment for Learning
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Learning Environment
Key Terms
Charting an Environment for Learning

Charting Your Course
How Does the Theory of “Locus of Control” Apply to You?
What Can Be Learned From Research on Effective Schools?
Who Is an Effective Teacher?
What Does the Literature Say About Effective Teachers?
How Do States Define Effective Teaching?
How Can You Help to Create a Positive Learning Environment in the School Where You Will Teach?
What Does School Climate Encompass?
How Do Teachers Manage the Classroom and Student Behavior?
How Can You Develop Your Own Classroom Management Plan?
How Are Student Academic Performance and Student Behavior Related?
A Quotation to Ponder—The Power of Feelings
How Can You Increase Your Effectiveness as a Teacher?
A Quotation to Ponder—How Will We Apply What We Already Know?
The Big Idea—The Learning Environment

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 4 Digging Into Standards
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Four Building Blocks and Standards
Key Terms
The Four Basic Building Blocks of Teaching and Learning—Standards, Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

Charting Your Course
Definitions of Terms—“Standards,” “Curriculum,” “Instruction,” and “Assessment ”
What Are Standards?
An Important Takeaway—Standards
What Is Curriculum?
An Important Takeaway—Curriculum
What Is Instruction?
An Important Takeaway—Instruction
What Is Assessment?
An Important Takeaway—Assessment

Uncovering More About Standards

Charting Your Course
Who Develops Academic Standards?
How Do Teachers Use Standards?
What Are the Common Core State Standards?
How Were Teachers Supported in Implementing New Standards?
Did North Carolina Adopt the CCSS?
How Did ESSA Change the Standards Landscape?
What Is the Current Status of CCSS Implementation?
What Was the Outcome of North Carolina’s Review of Its Academic Standards?
The Big Idea—Standards: An Essential Building Block for Teaching and Learning
Worth Remembering—What Matters Most?

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 5 Focusing on Curriculum
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Four Building Blocks and Curriculum
Key Terms

Focusing on Curriculum
Charting Your Course
How Is Curriculum Defined?
How Can Curriculum Be Categorized?
What Forces Shape the Curriculum?
A Point to Ponder—Curriculum
What Is the North Carolina Standard Course of Study?
A Point to Ponder—Standardization
How Do Teachers Translate Curriculum Into Practice?
What Curricular Resources Do North Carolina Teachers Utilize?
The Big Idea—Curriculum: An Essential Building Block for Teaching and Learning
Worth Remembering—What Matters Most?

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 6 Investigating Instruction
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Four Building Blocks and Instruction
Key Terms
Investigating Instruction

Charting Your Course
Are Teachers Born or Made?
Is Teaching an Art or a Science?
A Point to Ponder—The Most Important Variable
What Is Instruction?
Is One Teaching Strategy Better Than Another?
What Classification Systems Can Help Teachers to Assess the Levels of Rigor of Their Instruction?

Teacher-centered Instructional Approaches and Student-centered Instructional Approaches

What Is the Direct Instruction Model?
What Is Lecture-Discussion?
What Is Guided Discovery?
What Is Problem-based/Project-based Learning (PBL)?
How Can Questioning Be Used Effectively for Instruction?
What Is Cooperative Learning and How and When Should It Be Used for Instruction?
What Should Every Teacher Know About Differentiation?
How Can Technology Support Instruction?
How Can Teachers Keep Current With Technology?
Why Is It Important to Vary Instruction?
The Big Idea—Instruction: An Essential Building Block for Teaching and Learning
Worth Remembering—What Matters Most?

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 7 Navigating Toward Assessment Literacy
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Four Building Blocks and Assessment
Key Terms
Navigating Toward Assessment Literacy

Charting Your Course
What Do You Already Know and What Do You Need to Know About Assessment?
Is There a Culture of Testing in America’s Schools?
What Has the U.S. Department of Education Done in Response to the Perceived Overemphasis on Testing?
How Has North Carolina Addressed the Issue of Too Much Testing?
What Is the History of Accountability and Testing Over the Past Several Decades?
What Is the Case for Assessment Literacy?

Understanding Assessment: Looking Back and Looking Ahead

What Are the Purposes of Assessment at the Classroom Level?
How Are Assessment Results Used by Teachers?
What Do Aspiring Teachers Need to Know About Assessment?
A Point to Ponder—Assessment FOR Learning
A Point to Ponder—Assessment: A Garden Analogy
What Is Balanced Assessment?
A Point to Ponder—Your Goal for Assessment
What Questions Should Teachers Ask Themselves When Choosing Assessments?
The Big Idea: Assessment—An Essential Building Block for Teaching and Learning
Worth Remembering—What Matters Most?

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 8 Mapping an Instructional Plan
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About Planning—Where the Four Building Blocks Come Together
Key Terms
Mapping an Instructional Plan—Where the Four Building Blocks Come Together

Charting Your Course
What Is the Role of Teachers?
Why Is Instructional Planning So Important?
What Resources Are Available for Planning for Instruction?
A Point to Ponder—Standards Versus Instruction

Putting It All Together—Integrating the Four Building Blocks for Teaching and Learning Into a Design for Instruction

What Have You Learned So Far, and What Next?
How Can Teachers Design Instruction That Is Aligned With Standards?
What Were the Major Influences on the Development of the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model?
What Is the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model?
What Are the Six Steps of the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model?
Why Use the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model?
What Support Materials Are Available for the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model?
The Big Idea—Planning: Where the Four Building Blocks Come Together
Worth Remembering—What Matters Most?

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References
Appendix—Supplemental Materials for the Teaching for I.M.P.A.C.T. Model for Standards-Aligned Instructional Design
Flowchart-Teaching for IMPACT
“Teaching for IMPACT” Template

Chapter 9 Discovering Your Philosophy of Education
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About Your Philosophy of Education
Key Terms
Historical Foundations of Philosophical Thought

Charting Your Course
What Is the Meaning of the Word “Philosophy”?
How Are Philosophy and Education Related?
How Is Your Philosophy of Life Linked to Your Philosophy of Education?
An Important Takeaway—Your Personal Philosophy
Branches of Philosophy
What Is Metaphysics?
What Is Epistemology?
How Does Teaching Knowledge Relate to Professional Practice?
What Is Axiology?
Why Are the Questions Related to Each Branch of Philosophy So Important?

Four Philosophical Approaches to Education

What Is the Relationship Between Philosophy and Theories of Education?

Authoritarian or Teacher-centered Philosophical Approaches—Perennialism and Essentialism

What Is Perennialism?
What Is Essentialism?

Nonauthoritarian or Student-centered Philosophical Approaches—Progressivism and Existentialism

What Is Progressivism?
What Is Existentialism?

Four Philosophical Approaches to Education—What Have You Learned?
Exploring Your Emerging Philosophy of Education

What Can You Learn by Completing a Survey About Your Philosophical Beliefs?

Crafting a Statement of Your Emerging Philosophy of Education
Synthesizing Your Thoughts Into a Draft Philosophy Statement Paper

The Big Idea—Your Philosophy of Education Matters

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 10 Surveying the Historical and Legal Foundations of Education
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking about the Historical and Legal Foundations of American Education
Key Terms
Surveying the Historical and Legal Foundations of Education

Charting Your Course
What Are the Antecedents of American Education?
1600–1776
What Role Did Education Play in Our Developing Nation?
1776–1880
1880–1920
1920–Present
Summary of Educational Court Cases
Influential Educators from Our Nation’s Past
What Is the Legacy of the Twentieth Century in American Education?
The Big Idea—Historical and Legal Foundations of Education

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 11 Uncovering the Governance and Finances of Schools
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About the Governance and Finances of Schools
Key Terms
Organizing and Paying for America’s Educational System

Charting Your Course

The Federal Government’s Role in Education

What Is the History of the Federal Government’s Role in Education?
What Is the Federal Government’s Role in Education Today?
How Is the U.S. Congress Structured to Address Issues Related to Education?
What Are the Powers and Functions of the ED?
A Key Takeaway—ED
What Are Some School Systems Operated by the Federal Government?

Governance and Finances of Schools in North Carolina

What Is the Big Picture of Educational Governance and Finances in North Carolina?
How Is the Government of North Carolina Structured?
What Do the North Carolina Constitution and State Statutes Say About Education?
How Much Is the Total Education Budget for North Carolina and What Are Its Sources?
What Is the Role of the State Legislature in North Carolina?
What Are Some North Carolina Laws Related to Education?
What Are the Powers and Duties of the Governor in North Carolina?
What Are the Powers and Duties of the NCSBE?
What Is the Role of the Chief State School Officer?
What Is the Role of the State Department of Education?
What Is the Role of the Local Units of Government?
How Did the Duty of Local Schools to Provide a “Sound Basic Education” Lead to a Court Case?
What Is the Role of the Superintendent of Local School Districts?
What Is the Role of the Principal of Local Schools?
What Is the Role of Teachers in Local Schools?
What Are Some Alternatives to Traditional Public Schools in North Carolina?
The Big Idea—Governing and Financing Schools

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward
References

Chapter 12 Launching Your Career in Education
Preparing to Embark
Chapter Preview
Overarching Understanding
Essential Questions for Thinking About Beginning Your Teaching Career
Key Terms
Launching Your Career in Education

Charting Your Course
What Steps Do You Need to Take to Become Licensed to Teach?
How Can You Find a Teaching Job?
What Are the Needs of Beginning Teachers?
What Types of Support Do States and Districts Offer for New Teachers?
What Does North Carolina Do to Provide Support for New Teachers?
What Information Is Available About the Working Conditions for Teachers?
How Are Teachers Evaluated?
What Professional Development Opportunities and Professional Organizations Are Available for Educators?
What Is the First Year of Teaching Typically Like?
A Quotation to Ponder—Career-Long Learning
What Are Some Legal Issues That Teachers Face?
What Steps Can You Take While Still in School to Help Prepare You to Become a Teacher?
What Advice Do Experienced Teachers Offer to Neophytes Who Are Beginning Their Careers?
The Big Idea—Launching Your Career in Education

Chapter Wrap-up and a Look Forward to Beginning Your Own Career
References

End Word
A Teacher’s Lasting Impact

Index

Sara Simmons

Dr. Sara Coble Simmons has spent over 45 years in various facets of public education in three different states—North Carolina, Virginia, and Texas. She earned her B.A. in Elementary Education (Phi Beta Kappa) and M.Ed. in Guidance and Counseling from The University of North Carolina at Greensboro and her Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction from The University of Texas at Austin (Phi Kappa Phi, Kappa Delta Pi). She was a public school teacher for 20 years and has worked at the Texas Education Agency and as an independent educational consultant. In 2017, she retired as a full professor from the Department of Elementary Education in the School of Education at The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. In recognition of her teaching, scholarship, and service, she was awarded professor emerita status.

While at UNC Pembroke, Dr. Simmons taught 29 different professional core courses for undergraduate and graduate education programs. She received the University’s Outstanding Teaching Award in 2005 and 2016, both times after being nominated by students. She was nominated for the prestigious North Carolina Board of Governors’ Award for Excellence in Teaching in fall 2016. She was the Associate Dean of the School of Education from 2007-2008, and Acting Dean of the School of Graduate Studies from 2008-2012. She was elected by her peers to the top faculty leadership role as the Chair of the General Faculty and of the Faculty Senate from 2016-2017.

Dr. Simmons is the founding President of the North Carolina Association of Elementary Educators (NCAEE) and has served on its board of directors and numerous standing committees. She was active in the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Teacher Educators (NC-ACTE), having served on the Executive Committee and as Co-Chair and Chair of the association’s Annual North Carolina Teacher Education Forum. She has directed various grant-funded collaborative projects to support teachers—especially beginning teachers—in area public schools. Her areas of research interest include standards-aligned instructional design, differentiated instruction, classroom assessment, online pedagogy, and teacher mentoring and induction. She consults with school districts and schools and has given over 100 peer-reviewed presentations at varied state, national, and international professional conferences. She has had articles published in academic journals and papers included in the proceedings of professional meetings. She is the author of Discovering the Teacher Within You: An Introduction to Education in North Carolina, 2nd edition (2019) and Advice for Beginning Teachers: Educators’ Letters to Their Younger Selves (2017), both published by Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

She strives to stay current on state and national educational issues, and she enjoys meeting people and engaging in a lively exchange of ideas about teaching and learning and educational improvement. She has the upmost admiration and respect for aspiring and practicing educators who have chosen to make a positive difference in the lives of the children who attend our nations’ public schools.

Dr. Simmons may be contacted via email (scsimmons@windstream.net or sara.simmons@uncp.edu) or through the publisher, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company (https://www.kendallhunt.com/ or https://www.kendallhunt.com/corporate/contact).

INTERACTIVE WRITING ACTIVITIES

Interspersed throughout each chapter are interactive writing activities that invite readers to reflect on their prior experiences and to think deeply about issues related to the topics introduced in the chapter. The purpose of these activities is to encourage active engagement in the learning process and to assist with absorption and retention of the main ideas that are presented. The activities are listed by chapter below.

Chapter 1: Exploring the Teaching Profession
Describe Your Favorite Teacher
Why Do You Want to Become a Teacher?
The Teaching Profession: Pros and Cons
Continuum of Certainty
Should Teaching be Considered a Profession?
Pause to Ponder: What Do YOU Think Excellent Teaching Entails?
Deepening Your Knowledge About the InTASC Standards
My Interpretation of the NC Professional Teaching Standards
Duties of North Carolina Teachers
My Views on Teacher Pay
Synthesis: Setting Learning Goals for Yourself

Chapter 2: Treasuring the Diversity Around You
Deeping Your Understanding of Diversity
A Celebration of Diversity: Creating Your Cultural Identity Shield
Learning More About Different Cultural Groups
Approaches to Teaching the English Language Learner
Helping Students to Recognize and Appreciate Diversity

Chapter 3: Charting an Environment for Learning
Effective Schools and School Climate
Roles of Teachers
Recalling Effective Teachers from Your School Days
Characteristics and Skills of Effective Teachers
Ideas to Remember
Building Your Own Personalized Approach to Management/Discipline

Chapter 4: Digging into Standards
Your Definition of “Standards”
Your Definition of “Curriculum”
Your Definition of “Instruction”
Your Definition of “Assessment
Cementing Your Understanding: Key Points to Remember About the Four Basic Building Blocks

Chapter 5: Focusing on Curriculum
Whose Voices Shape the Curriculum?
Which Curriculum Area Interests You Most?
Curricular Resources

Chapter 6: Investigating Instruction
What Is “Good Teaching”?
Envision Yourself Teaching Your Future Students
Composing Questions Using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Webb’s DOK
Should Students Be Required to Work in Teams in Schools?
Differentiation

ISTE Standards for Teachers
Use of Technology for Differentiation

Chapter 7: Adventuring into Assessment
Too Much Testing?
How Would You Respond to These Poll Questions?
How to Improve Assessments
The Ultimate Goal
Assessment Considerations

Chapter 8: Mapping an Instructional Plan
A Moment for Reflection on the Four Building Blocks
Is It Worth Doing?
Planning
Plan B
Synthesis: The Four Building Blocks for Teaching and Learning

Chapter 9: Discovering Your Philosophy of Education
Two-Minute Paper
Elevator Pitch
Knowing
Ways of Knowing
Constructing Knowledge
Definition of “Education”
“The Best Education”
Discipline in Schools

Perennialism in Schools
Time for Philosophical Pondering: Who Decides?
Essentialism in Schools
A Moment for Philosophical Thinking: “Blank Slate” vs. Knowledge Within
Progressivism in Schools
Existentialism in Schools
Topics and Guiding Questions for Composing Your Statement of Philosophy
Putting Your Draft Paragraphs into a Statement Paper

Chapter 10: Surveying the Historical and Legal Foundations of Education
Using a KWL Chart to Activate Prior Knowledge
The Lasting Influence of the Cardinal Principles

Chapter 11: Uncovering the Governance and Finances of Schools
Role of Federal Government
Department of Defense Schools
Bureau of Indian Education Schools
Education Funding for Public Schools
Impact of NCSBE on Teachers
Duties of Principals
Duties of Teachers
Synthesis: Organizing and Paying for America’s Educational System

Chapter 12: Launching Your Career in Education
Teaching: A Changing Profession
Elevator Pitch
Analysis of Novice Teacher Needs
Suspected Child Abuse
Your Views About Corporal Punishment
Review of School Report Cards
Review of District and School Websites
Challenges Ahead
Synthesis: Time for Reflection on Your Travels

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