Educating Inclusively: Assessment and Instructional Strategies
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In the current educational landscape where national and classroom demographics are changing, many teachers are simply not prepared to accommodate students of diverse backgrounds and abilities/disabilities.
Educating Inclusively: Assessment & Instructional Strategies presents the dire need for inclusive education and provides teachers with the knowledge base necessary to successfully incorporate inclusive classroom methods. Crafted to emphasize “all individuals” rather than “all individuals with disabilities,” this text equips teachers in creating learning environments where all students have equitable opportunities to use their unique gifts to achieve success.
Educating Inclusively: Assessment & Instructional Strategies:
- Provides an understanding of the legal implications of “no child left behind.”
- Helps reduce the concern for over-representation of minority groups in special education.
- Educates teachers how to formulate instructional strategies based on the individual student’s particular challenges and gifts.
Part I Educating Inclusively
Why Educate Inclusively?
What Will This Book Help Teachers Achieve?
Perceptions, Assessment, and Instruction
Organization of This Book
2 Inclusive Education: The Fundamentals (1)
What Is Special Education?
Three levels of understanding special education
A brief history of special education
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard and self-fulfilling prophecy
Who Are Children With Special Needs?
Definitions and concepts
Exceptionality and exceptional children
Handicap, disability, and disorder
Section 504, IDEA, and Children with Special Needs
Who Requires Special Education?
Eligibility for special education
Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Special education referral procedures and assessment
Individualized Education Plan (IEP) vs. Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
What Is Inclusive Education?
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Why Do We Need Inclusive Education?
Human instinct -— A force and need to be included in the community
The purpose and goal of inclusive education
Equity for success but not equal success
Research and court cases support inclusion
Issues about inclusion
Full and partial inclusion
The success recipes of Copernicus and the Wright Brothers
Flexibility in practicing inclusion
Support from the courts
Support from research evidence
The demand and challenge in the education of the 21st century
How Does Inclusive Education Work?
Inclusion vs. mainstreaming
Attitude making a difference
Teachers’ Challenges and Difficulties in Practicing Inclusion
3 Inclusive Education: The Fundamentals (2)
Challenges of Practicing Inclusion
A scenario in history
Teachers’ difficulties with curriculum modifications
The rule of thumb: Understanding the relationship of assessment and instruction
The Relationships of Perception, Assessment, and Instruction
Responding to diversity as effective curriculum modifications and instruction
A scenario in history
Normal vs. Abnormal Behavior
Identifications vary with cultural values
ADD, ADHD, and ED/BD
ADD and ADHD
Definition and characteristics of ADD and ADHD
Prevalence of ADD/ADHD
Causes of ADD/ADHD: The ADD/ADHD iceberg theory
Identification and assessment
Definition and characteristics of ED/BD
Prevalence of ED/BD
Causes of ED/BD
Assessment and identification
Concerns and Recommendations for Behavior Management
Caution and concerns
Instruction and medication
The controversial issue of using medication
Hands-On Activity 1: Momotoro
Purpose and objective
Collaboration and Partnerships
Understanding children through connecting their families and communities
Effective inclusion requiring collaboration and partnerships
Working with parents
Working with teachers: Co-teaching
Working with school administrators and staff
Part II Assessment: I Am Beyond Your Imagination
4 Assess and Reflect Yourself
Hands-On Activity 2: True or False
Hands-On Activity 3: Name a New Planet
Hands-On Activity 4: Labeling
Hands-On Activity 5: Post Hands-On Activity 4 Reflection
5 Perception: The Primary Assessment Tool
What Is Assessment?
Responsibilities and eligibilities for performing assessments
Informal Assessments, Formal Assessments, and Alternative Assessments
Definitions of culture
Purpose and types
Purpose and types
Reliability and validity of standardized tests
Perception and the Formation of Perception
Definition of perception
The formation of perception/attitude (shape elements)
What is ethnocentrism?
What is cultural relativism?
Alleviating “Assessment Bias” to the Minimal Degree
Over-representation issues in special education
Can “assessment bias” be avoided?
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Its Effects
Definition and background
Self-fulfilling prophecy in education
Rosenthal and Jacobson's research study in 1968
The origin of special education as the outcome of self-fulfilling prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy effects
Labeling and Its Effects
Diversity and the changing demographics of the United States
Language diversity in education
What are labels?
Are labels and classification necessary?
The effects of labeling and classification
Positive effects of labeling and classification
Teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) students
Language learning and critical periods
Negative effects of labeling and classification
What Can Be Done for a Catch-22 Question?
6 Difference vs. Deficit
What Are “Difference” and “Deficit”?
Hands-On Activity 6: Experiencing Language Difference & Language Deficit
Hands-On Activity 7: Analysis of Hands-On Activity 6
Definitions Perception changes go through stages
Deficit and difference from research
The deficit perspective
The difference perspective
Part III Instructional Strategies: Common Classroom Instructional Difficulties and Tips
7 Diversity Issues and Differentiated Instruction
What Does It Mean, “All Children Can Learn”?
Diversity, Responding to Diversity, and Celebrating Diversity
What is diversity?
Inclusive education community and its members
Responding to diversity and celebrating diversity
How does diversity benefit children’s learning?
Multicultural Education and Delivering Quality of Education
Quality of education
Multicultural education and inclusive education
Pluralism vs. assimilation
Pureed Soup (Melting Pot)
Assorted Chocolates (Tossed Salad, Mixed Greens
Stained Glass Panel (Threaded Quilt, Mosaic)
Student Ethnic Backgrounds and Characteristics
Ethnicity, culture, culture shock, ethnocentrism, and cultural relativism
“i “vs. “I” concepts
Self-identify: Ethnicity and nationality
The hierarchy and interchange of “i” and “I” concepts
Characteristics of the five ethnic groups in the U.S. multicultural society
Student Learning Styles
Kolb’s learning styles
Kolb’s experiential learning cycle
Student Potentials (Gifts and Talents)
Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Introverts vs. Extroverts
Sensor vs. iNtuitive
Thinking vs. Feeling
Judgment vs. Intuition
Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI)
Differentiated Instruction. Why Differentiated Instruction?
Why differentiated instruction?
8 Adapting Language Instruction for Children with Special Needs
Language and the Purpose of Language
Language Disorders, Communication Disorders, Language Delay, and Language Difference
Definition of “communication” and “communication disorders”
Types of communication disorders
Language disorder vs. language delay
Language difference vs. language disorder
First Language (L1) Acquisition vs. Second Language (L2) Acquisition
First language (L1) acquisition
Social interactionist theory
Second Language (L2) acquisition
Adults Ls acquisition vs. children’s L2 acquisition
Krashen’s five hypotheses
The acquisition-learning hypothesis
The monitor hypothesis
The natural order hypothesis
The input hypothesis (i +1)
The affective filter hypothesis
Beyond social interaction theory
Common Literacy Problems for Children with Literacy Difficulties
What is literacy?
What is literacy important?
Literacy is a tool for survival
Literacy instruction has been a national concern and focus
Literacy is related to all content areas
Literacy problems which children with literacy difficulties share
Every child requires appropriate literacy instruction
Literacy difficulties: Vocabulary, reading, and writing
Lack of phonological awareness
The controversies of Whole Language Approach and Phonics
Whole Language Approach
Balanced literacy or multiple literacy approaches?
Does teachers’ knowledge in linguistics help children improve literacy skills?
Hands-On Activity 8: Self-Test for Teachers
Why study linguistics?
Hands-On Activity 9: Clues for Literacy Games
Reading –— Word knowledge and word recognition
Sound and letter association games
Word guessing game
Why is writing difficult?
Methods of teaching writing
9 English as a Second Language (ESL) Learners
A scenario in history
ESL Students and Their Placement
Misconceptions About ESL Students
Teachers’ Common Difficulties with ESL Students
Difficulty interpreting a child’s behavior from his/her cultural norm
School norms used as rulers to measure and shape students
Culture shapes humans
(a) Freudian theory: Id, ego, and superego
(b) Culture (the moral code) and superego
(c) Cultures vary with ways of thinking and problem-solving skills
Various solutions and divergent thinking
Do Teachers Need to Learn a Second Language (L2)?
Teachers’ L2 learning and responding to diversity
Teachers’ L2 learning and ESL students’ English skills
Translation and the Use of the First Language (L1)
Language development: The concept of critical period and language proficiency
The concept of critical period
FOXP2 and language development
Language development and brain functioning associated with the critical period (infancy -– 7 years of age or puberty)
Children vs. adults learning
Victor and Genie
Nature, nurture, and interactions
Language proficiency and cultural norms
Issues about translation and L1 vs. L2 instruction
The critical period or age-related factor needs to be considered
Translation or the use of L1
Four bilingual education models (L1 vs. L2 instruction)
Helping ESL Learners
Learning the ESL learner’s language, family, and cultural backgrounds
Understanding how language works
Knowing how to distinguish “difference” from “deficit”
10 Creativity: Is One plus One Equal to Two?
Creativity and the Importance of Creativity
Historical Genius Figures
Is Creativity Innate or Can It Be Taught?
Characteristics that Creative People Share
The process of Creativity
Ways of Becoming Creative
Keeping a personal journal
Think like a genius
Question assumptions or the truth assumed to be the golden rule
(Be inquisitive. Never stop asking questions!)
Exercising creative abilities
A Personal Example of Experiencing Creative Process as a Writer
Hands-on activity 10: Creativity Through Visualization
Figure 1 Sixteen Categories Covered Under Section 504
Figure 2 Twelve Categories Covered Under IDEA
Figure 3 The Section 504 and IDEA Diagram
Figure 4 Special Education Referral Procedures
Figure 5 Inclusion vs. Mainstreaming
Figure 6 The Relationships of Assessment, Instruction, and Teachers’ Knowledge, Experience, and Skills
Figure 7 Three General Collaborative Models in the Inclusive Education Setting
Figure 8 Population by Race and Ethnicity, Actual and Projected: 1960, 2005, & 2050
Figure 9 Stages of Perception Changes Towards Deficit and Difference
Figure 10 Stained Glass Panel
Figure 11 The U.S. Multicultural Society
Figure 12 Components of Communication
Figure 13 Children’s L2 Acquisition vs. Adults’ L2 Acquisition
Figure 14 Making a Flash Card
Figure 15 L1 vs. L2 Instruction
Figure 16 Creativity in the Making
Table 1 Diagnostic Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Table 2 Labeling Activity
Table 3 Overrepresentation in Special Education (Disability/Giftedness & Ethnicity)
Table 4 Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (Consonants)
Table 5 Mandarin Phonetic Symbols (Vowels)
Table 6 Mandarin Tones
Table 7 Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) -—16 Types of Learners
Table 8 Normal Language and Prelanguage Development
Table 9 Syntactic Structure in Different Languages
Table 10 Vowels in the English Language
Table 11 Consonants in the English Language