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English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach

Author(s): Gulsat Aygen

Edition: 3

Copyright: 2016

Details: Ebook w/KHQ | 180 days |

Included with your eBook purchase, you will also receive access to KHQ, Kendall Hunt’s exclusive custom study app. Designed for today’s fast-paced environment, KHQ features chapter quizzes and flashcards that empower students to learn on the go!

English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach is a prescriptive English grammar text designed to be a classroom textbook as well as a self-study book. It may also be used as a grammar reference for relevant grammatical English phenomena.

Several innovative linguistic tools, tests, and even formulae have been developed to help the reader understand the material. The analytical approach used in this book will help the readers understand that grammar is not simply a collection of arbitrary rules to be memorized, but actually a consistent set of justifiable rules. 

English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach includes supplementary material, such as sample syllabi, exercise answer keys, instructor/student user’s guide, and a glossary.

To fill a long-standing need in the market, the author has incorporated:

  • Novel linguistic tools and abstractions
  • Vocabulary/terminology reviews
  • Classroom applications
  • Significant use of graphic organizers
  • Linguistic extension material

English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach also includes:

  • Instructor's Assessment Kit - Erin Vobornik, Sarah Eastlund, & Gulsat Aygen
  • Instructor's Kit including Cumulative Answer Keys, Exercise Answer Keys, & Lecture Slides - Gulsat Aygen

Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.i. Chapter Overview
1.i.i. Preview
1.i.ii. Vocabulary
1.1. The English Language
1.1.1. Study of Language
1.1.2. Grammar
1.1.2.1. Descriptive Grammar
1.1.2.2. Prescriptive Grammar
Exercises 1.1.1. Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar
1.1.3. Basic Sentence Structure
1.1.3.1. Subject
Exercises 1.1.3.1. Basic Subjects & Complete Subjects
1.1.3.2. Predicate
Exercises 1.1.3.2.1. Subject & Predicate
Exercises 1.1.3.2.2. Subject, Predicate, and Head of the Predicate
1.2. Word Classes
1.2. Table Word Classes & Parts of Speech
1.2.1. Open Classes/Content Words
1.2.2. Closed Class/Functional Words
Exercises 1.2.2. Closed Class/Functional Words
1.2.3. Mixed Class
1.2.3. Table Mixed Class & Parts of Speech
Exercises 1.2. Open vs. Closed Class Members
1.2.4 Table Identifying Open/Closed Class Words
1.3. Parts of Speech
1.3.1. Inflectional Properties
Exercises 1.3.1. Inflectional Morphemes
1.3.2. Syntactic Properties
Chapter 1 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 1: Introduction & Word Classes
Chapter 1 Review
1.1.1. Matching
1.1.2. Matching
Answer Key for Chapter 1 Review
1.1.1. Matching Answer Key
1.1.2. Matching Answer Key
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 1

Chapter 2 - Nouns
2.i. Chapter Overview
2.i.i. Preview
2.i.ii. Vocabulary
2.1. Nouns
2.1.1. Noun Tests
Exercises 2.1.1. Noun Identification
2.1.2. Kinds of Nouns
2.1.2.1. Common vs. Proper Nouns
Table 2.1.2.1. Common vs. Proper Nouns
Exercises 2.1.2.1. Common/Proper Noun Identification
2.1.2.2. Concrete vs. Abstract Nouns
Table 2.1.2.2. Concrete vs. Abstract Nouns
Exercises 2.1.2.2. Concrete/Abstract Noun Identification
2.1.2.3. Count vs. Noncount Nouns
Table 2.1.2.3. Count vs. Noncount Nouns
Exercises 2.1.2.3. Count/Noncount Noun Identification
2.1.2.3.1. Pluralization Rules
2.1.2.4. Collective Nouns
Exercises 2.1.2.a. Noun Type Identification
Exercises 2.1.2.b. Noun Type Identification
2.1.3. Syntactic Properties of Nouns
Chapter 2 Cumulative Application
Appendix – Noun Types
Summary Points for Chapter 2: Nouns
Chapter 2 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 2 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 2

Chapter 3 – Pronouns
3.i. Chapter Overview
3.i.i. Preview
3.i.ii. Vocabulary
3.1. Pronouns
Table 3.1. Pronouns
Exercises 3.1. Antecedent Identification
3.1.1. Central Pronouns
Table 3.1.1. Central Pronouns
3.1.1.1. Personal Pronouns
Table 3.1.1.1. Person
Exercises 3.1.1.1. Person Identification
3.1.1.1.1. Personal Pronoun Coordination
3.1.1.1.2. Number, Gender, & Case
3.1.1.1.2.1. Number
Table 3.1.1.1.2.1. Number & Person
Exercises 3.1.1.1.2.1. Number
3.1.1.1.2.2. Gender
Table 3.1.1.1.2.2. Number, Person, & Gender
Exercises 3.1.1.1.2.2. Gender
3.1.1.1.2.3. Case
Table 3.1.1.1.2.3. Number, Person, Gender, & Case
Exercises 3.1.1.1.2.3. Case
Exercises 3.1.1.1.2. Case, Number, Gender, Person
3.1.1.2. Possessive Pronouns
Exercises 3.1.1.2. Possessive Pronouns & Functions
3.1.1.3. Reflexive Pronouns
Table 3.1.1.3. Plural & Singular Reflexive
Exercises 3.1.1.3. Reflexive Pronouns
3.1.1.4. Reciprocal Pronouns
3.1.2. Other Pronouns
3.1.2.1. Relative Pronouns
3.1.2.1.1. Who/Whom
3.1.2.2. Interrogative Pronouns
3.1.2.3. Demonstrative Pronouns
Table 3.1.2.3. Demonstrative Pronouns
3.1.2.4. Indefinite Pronouns
3.1.2.4.1. Singular Indefinites
3.1.2.4.2. Plural Indefinites
3.1.2.4.3. Indefinites – Singular or Plural
Table 3.1.2.4. Indefinite Pronouns
Exercises 3.1.a. Pronouns
Exercises 3.1.b. Pronoun Type Identification
3.2. Common Pronoun Errors
3.2.1. Antecedent Errors
3.2.2. Case Errors Involving Pronouns
3.2.3. Redundant Pronouns
Exercises 3.2. Pronoun Errors
Exercises 3. Pronoun and Antecedent Identification
Chapter 3 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 3: Pronouns
Chapter 3 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 3 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 3

Chapter 4 – Adjectives & Adverbs
4.i. Chapter Overview
4.i.i. Preview
4.i.ii. Vocabulary
4. Adjectives and Adverbs
4.1. Adjectives
4.1.1. Inflectional Properties of Adjectives
Exercises 4.1.1. Adjective Form Identification
4.1.2. Syntactic Functions of Adjectives
4.1.2.1. Articles
4.1.3. Types of Adjectives
Table 4.1.3. Gradable vs. Nongradable Adjectives
4.1.3.1. Descriptive Adjectives
Exercises 4.1.3.1. Descriptive Adjective Order
4.1.3.2. Possessive Pronouns with Adjective Function
Table 4.1.3.2. Possessive pronouns with Adjective or Pronoun Function
Exercises 4.1.3.2. Possessive Pronouns with Adjective Function Identification
4.1.3.3. Demonstrative Adjectives
Table 4.1.3.3. Demonstrative Adjectives
Exercises 4.1.3.3. Demonstrative Adjective Identification & Properties
4.1.3.4. Proper Adjectives
Exercises 4.1.3.4. Proper Adjective Identification
4.1.3.5. Indefinite Adjectives
Exercises 4.1.3.5. Indefinite Adjective Identification
4.1.3.6. Interrogative Adjectives
4.1.3.7. Relative Adjectives
4.1.3.8. Numbers as Adjectives
Exercises 4.1. Adjective Type & Form Identification
4.2. Adverbs
4.2.1. Inflectional Properties of Adverbs
Exercises 4.2.1. Inflectional Properties of Adverbs
4.2.2. Syntactic Functions of Adverbs
4.2.2.1. Adverbs That Modify Verbs
4.2.2.1.1. Negation
4.2.2.2. Adverbs That Modify Adjectives
Exercises 4.2.2.2. Adverb & Question Identification
4.2.2.3. Adverbs That Modify Other Adverbs
4.2.2.4. Adverbs That Modify Prepositions
4.2.2.5. Adverbs That Modify Full Clauses
Exercises 4.2.2.5. Adverb Identification
4.3. Inflectional Properties of Comparison Forms – Adjectives & Adverbs
4.4. Inflectional Properties of Superlative Forms – Adjectives & Adverbs
Exercises 4.a. Comparison – Adjectives & Adverbs
Exercises 4.b. Comparison – Adjectives & Adverbs
Chapter 4 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 4: Modifiers
Chapter 4 Review
4.1.1. Matching
4.1.2. Matching
4.1.3. Matching
Answer Key for Chapter 4 Review
4.1.1. Matching Answer Key
4.1.2. Matching Answer Key
4.1.3. Matching Answer Key
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 4

Chapter 5 – Prepositions, Conjunctions & Interjections
5.i. Chapter Overview
5.i.i. Preview
5.i.ii. Vocabulary
5.1. Prepositions, Conjunctions, & Interjections
5.2. Prepositions
Table 5.2. Some Commonly Used Prepositions
Exercises 5.2.a. Preposition Use
Exercises 5.2.b. Prepositional Object Identification
5.2.1. Phrasal Verbs, Verb Particles/Adverbs
5.2.1.1. Distinguishing Between Prepositions and Verb Particles/Adverbs
Exercises 5.2.1.1. Preposition & Verb Particle/Adverb Tests
5.3. Conjunctions
5.3.1. Coordinating Conjunctions
Exercises 5.3.1. Coordinating Conjunction Identification
5.3.2. Subordinating Conjunctions
Exercises 5.3.2. Subordinating Conjunction Identification
5.3.3. Correlative Conjunctions
Exercises 5.3.3. Correlative Conjunction Identification
Exercises 5.3. Conjunction Identification
5.4. Interjections
Exercises 5.4. Interjection Identification
Exercises 5. Preposition, Conjunction, & Interjection Identification
Chapter 5 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 5: Prepositions, Conjunctions, & Interjections
Chapter 5 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 5 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 5

Chapter 6 - Verbs & Verbals
6.i. Chapter Overview
6.i.i. Preview
6.i.ii. Vocabulary
6. Verbs & Verbals
6.1. Verbs
6.1.1. Verb Types by Function
6.1.1.1. Content Verbs
6.1.1.1.1. Regular Content Verbs
Table 6.1.1.1.1. Regular Verb Forms
6.1.1.1.2. Irregular Content Verbs
Table 6.1.1.1.2. Irregular Verb Forms
6.1.1.2. Auxiliary Verbs
6.1.1.2.1. Regular Auxiliary Verbs
Exercises 6.1.2.2.1. Regular Auxiliary Verb & Content Verb Identification
6.1.1.2.2. Modal Auxiliary Verbs
Table 6.1.1.2.2. Modal Auxiliary Verbs
Exercises 6.1.1.2.2. Modal Verb Identification
Exercises 6.1.1.2. Auxiliary Verb Type Identification
6.1.1.3. Linking Verbs
6.1.1.3.1. Types of Linking Verbs
6.1.1.3.2. Subject Complements
Exercises 6.1.1.3. Linking Verb Identification
Exercises 6.1.1. Verb Complex & Verb Type Identification
6.1.2. Verb Classes by Structure
6.1.2.1. Objects
6.1.2.1.1. Direct Objects
Exercises 6.1.2.1.1. Direct Object Identification
6.1.2.1.2. Indirect Objects
Exercises 6.1.2.1.2. Indirect Object Identification
Exercises 6.1.2.1. Object Identification
6.1.3. Transitivity
6.1.3.1. Intransitive Verbs
6.1.3.2. Transitive Verbs
Exercises 6.1.3.2. Transitivity Identification
6.1.3.3. Ditransitive Verbs
Exercises 6.1.3.3. Transitivity Identification
6.1. Table Verb Forms
Exercises 6.1. Verb Complex Identification & Type
6.2. Verbals
6.2.1. Gerunds
Exercises 6.2.1. Gerund Identification
6.2.2. Participles
Table 6.2.2. Irregular Verb Forms
6.2.2.1. Present Participles
Exercises 6.2.2.1.a. Present Participle Identification
Exercises 6.2.2.1.b. Gerund & Present Participle Identification
6.2.2.2. Past Participles
Exercises 6.2.2.2.a. Past Participle Identification
Exercises 6.2.2.2.b. Participle Identification
6.2.3. Infinitives
Exercises 6.2.3.a. Infinitive Identification
Exercises 6.2.3.b. Infinitive/Preposition Differentiation
Exercises 6.2.a. Verb/Verbal Differentiation
Exercises 6.2.b. Verbal Identification
Chapter 6 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 6: Verbs & Verbals
Chapter 6 Review
Review 6.1.
Review 6.2.
Answer Key for Chapter 6 Review
Review 6.1.
Review 6.2.
Appendix: Irregular Verb Forms
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 6

Chapter 7 - Phrases
7.i. Chapter Overview
7.i.i. Preview
7.i.ii. Vocabulary
7. Phrases
7.1. Noun Phrases
Exercises 7.1. Noun Phrase Identification
7.1.1. Functions of Noun Phrases
Exercises 7.1.1. Functions of Noun Phrases
7.1.2. Appositive Phrases
Exercises 7.1.2. Functions of the NPs that the Appositive Phrases Follow
7.2. Verb Phrases
7.2.1. Objects, Complements, & Verb Phrases
7.2.2. Adverbs & Verb Phrases
7.2.3. Identifying Verb Phrases
Exercises 7.2.a. Verb Phrase Identification
Exercises 7.2.b. Noun/Verb Phrase Identification
7.3. Adjective Phrases
Exercises 7.3. Adjective Phrase Identification
7.4. Adverb Phrases
Exercises 7.4.a. Adverb Phrase Identification
Exercises 7.4.b. Adjective/Adverb Phrase Identification
7.5. Prepositional Phrases
Exercises 7.5. Prepositional Phrase Identification
7.5.1. Functions of Prepositional Phrases
7.5.2. Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives
Exercises 7.5.2. Adjectival Prepositional Phrase Identification
7.5.3. Prepositional Phrases as Adverbs
Exercises 7.5.3.a. Adverbial Prepositional Phrase Identification
Exercises 7.5.3.b. Phrase Identification
7.6. Verbal Phrases
7.6.1. Gerundive Phrases
Exercises 7.6.1. Gerund & Gerundive Phrase Identification
7.6.2. Participial Phrases
7.6.2.1. Present Participial Phrases
7.6.2.2. Past Participle Phrases
Exercises 7.6.2.a. Participial Phrase Identification
Exercises 7.6.2.b. Verbal and Verbal Phrase Identification
7.6.3. Infinitive Phrases
7.6.3.1. Infinitive Phrases as Nouns
7.6.3.2. Infinitive Phrases as Adjectives
7.6.3.3. Infinitive Phrases as Adverbs
Exercises 7.6.3.a. Infinitive Phrases & Functions
Exercises 7.6.3.b. Verbal Phrase Identification
7.7. Absolute Phrases
Exercises 7.7. Absolute Phrase Identification
Exercises 7. Phrase Identification
Chapter 7 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 7: Phrases
Chapter 7 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 7 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 7

Chapter 8 – Tense & Aspect
8.i. Chapter Overview
8.i.i. Preview
8.i.ii. Vocabulary
8.1. Tense
Table 8.1. Tense
8.1.1. Present Tense
Table 8.1.1. Present Forms of the Auxiliary Verbs
Exercises 8.1.1. Simple Present Tense Identification
8.1.2. Past Tense
Table 8.1.2. Past Forms of the Auxiliary Verbs
Exercises 8.1.2. Simple Present/Simple Past Tense Identification
8.1.3. Future Tense
Exercises 8.1.3. Tense Identification
8.2. Aspect
8.2.1. Progressive Aspect
Exercises 8.2.1. Progressive Aspect Identification
8.2.2. Perfect Aspect
8.2.2.1. Simple Past Tense vs Present Perfect
Exercises 8.2.2. Progressive/Perfect Aspect Identification
8.2.3. Perfect Progressive Aspect
Exercises 8.2.3. Perfect Progressive Aspect Identification
8.2.4. Simple Aspect
Exercises 8.2.4. Aspect Identification
8.2.5. Review of Tense and Aspect
Table 8.2.5. Tense/Aspect System of English
Exercises 8.2.5. Tense & Aspect Identification
Chapter 8 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 8: Tense & Aspect
Chapter 8 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 8 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 8

Chapter 9 – Voice & Mood
9.i. Chapter Overview
9.i.i. Preview
9.i.ii. Vocabulary
9.1. Mood
9.1.1. Indicative Mood
Exercises 9.1.1. Indicative Mood Identification
9.1.2. Imperative
Exercises 9.1.2.a. Imperative Mood Identification
Exercises 9.1.2.b. Indicative/Imperative Mood Identification
9.1.3. Subjunctive
9.1.3.1. Wish Constructions
Exercises 9.1.3.1. Wish Construction Identification
9.1.3.2. Contrary-to-fact Conditionals
9.1.3.2.1. Conditionals & Subjunctive Conditionals
Table 9.1.3.2.1. Conditionals in English
9.1.3.2.1.1. Probable Condition – Indicative Conditionals
Exercises 9.1.3.2.1.1. Probable Condition & Mood Identification
9.1.3.2.1.2. Improbable Condition – Subjunctive Mood
Exercises 9.1.3.2.1.2.a. Improbable Condition & Mood Identification
Exercises 9.1.3.2.1.2.b Improbable/Probable Condition & Mood Identification
9.1.3.2.1.3. Impossible Condition – Subjunctive
Exercises 9.1.3.2.1.3.a. Condition & Mood Identification
Exercises 9.1.3.2.1.3.b. Subjunctive Identification in Conditional Sentences
9.1.3.3. Subjunctive Verbs, Adjectives, & a Noun
Table 9.1.3.3. Subjunctive Verbs, Adjectives, & a Noun
Exercises 9.1.3.3. Subjunctive Verbs, Adjectives, & a Noun
Exercises 9.1. Mood Identification
9.2. Voice
9.2.1. Active Voice
Exercises 9.2.1. Active Voice Identification
9.2.2. Passive Voice
Exercises 9.2.2. Voice Identification
9.2.2.1. Converting Active to Passive
Table 9.2.2.1. Active/Passive Voice
Exercises 9.2.2.1. Voice Conversion
Chapter 9 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 9: Mood & Voice
Chapter 9 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 9 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 9

Chapter 10 – Predicate Structure & Sentence Patterns
10.i. Chapter Overview
10.i.i. Preview
10.i.ii. Vocabulary
10.1. Predicate Structure
10.1.1. Objects
10.1.1.1. Direct Object
Exercises 10.1.1.1. Direct Object Identification
10.1.1.2. Indirect Object
Exercises 10.1.1.2. Direct/Indirect Object Identification
10.1.2. Complements
10.1.2.1. Subject Complement
Exercises 10.1.2.1. Subject Complement Identification
10.1.2.2. Object Complement
Exercises 10.1.2.2. Subject/Object Complement Identification
10.1.3. Non-required Components of a Predicate: Modifiers
Exercises 10.1.a. Subject/Object Complement Identification
Exercises 10.1.b. Predicate Element Identification
10.2. Sentence Patterns
10.2.1. Sentence Pattern 1: Subject-Verb (S V)
Exercises 10.2.1. Sentence Pattern 1 (S V) Identification
10.2.2. Sentence Pattern 2: Subject-Verb-Direct Object (S V DO)
Exercises 10.2.2. Sentence Pattern 2 (S V DO) Identification
10.2.3. Sentence Pattern 3: Subject-Verb-Indirect Object-Direct Object (S V IO DO)
Exercises 10.2.3. Sentence Pattern 3 (S V IO DO) Identification
10.2.4. Sentence Pattern 4: Subject-Verb-Direct Object-Object Complement (S V DO OC)
Exercises 10.2.4. Sentence Pattern 4 (S V DO OC) Identification
10.2.5. Sentence Pattern 5: Subject-Linking Verb-Subject Complement (S LV SC)
Exercises 10.2.5. Sentence Pattern 5 (S LV SC) Identification
Exercises 10.2. Sentence Pattern Identification
Chapter 10 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 10: Predicate Structure & Sentence Patterns
Chapter 10 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 10 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 10

Chapter 11 – Agreement
11.i. Chapter Overview
11.i.i. Preview
11.i.ii. Vocabulary
11. Agreement
11.1. Subject-Verb Agreement
Exercises 11.1. Subject-Verb Agreement
11.1.1. Agreement & Intervening Words
Exercises 11.1.1. Subject/Verb Agreement
11.1.2. Compound Subjects
Exercises 11.1.2. Subject-Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects
11.1.3. Indefinite Pronouns & Number Agreement
Table 11.1.3. Indefinite Pronouns and Number:
Exercises 11.1.3. Indefinite Pronouns & Number Agreement
11.1.4. Collective Nouns
Exercises 11.1.4. Collective Nouns & Noun Agreement
11.1.5. Word Order Changes
11.1.5.1. Questions
Exercises 11.1.5.1 Question Word Order
11.1.5.2. Existential Constructions
Exercises 11.1.5.2. Existential Construction Word Order
11.1.5.3. Inverted Conditionals
Table 11.1.5.3. Regular vs. Inverted Conditional Clause
Exercises 11.1.5.3. Inverted Conditionals
Exercises 11.1.5. Proper Word Order
11.1.6. Always Singular Words
Exercises 11.1.6. Number Agreement & Always Singular Words
Exercises 11.1.a. Proper Subject-Verb Agreement
Exercises 11.1.b. Proper Subject-Verb Agreement
11.2. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Exercises 11.2. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
11.2.1. Pronouns & Case
Exercises 11.2.1. Pronouns in the Proper Case
11.2.2. Pronoun Agreement Problems
11.2.2.1. Indefinite Pronouns & Indefinite Adjectives
Exercises 11.2.2.1. Proper Indefinite Pronoun & Adjective Use
11.2.2.2. Sexist Language
Exercises 11.2.2.2. Non-Sexist Language Use
11.2.2.3. Collective Nouns
Exercises 11.2.2.3. Proper Collective Antecedent Use
11.2.3. Antecedent Problems
11.2.3.1. Improper Pronoun/Antecedent Use
11.2.3.2. Ambiguous Antecedents
Exercises 11.2.3.2. Proper Antecedent Use
11.2.3.3. Comparisons
Exercises 11.2.a. Proper Pronoun Use
Exercises 11.2.b. Proper Pronoun Use
Chapter 11 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 11: Agreement
Chapter 11 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 11 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 11

Chapter 12 – Clauses
12.i. Chapter Overview
12.i.i. Preview
12.i.ii. Vocabulary
12. Clause
12.1. Clauses by Type
12.1.1. Independent Clauses
Exercises 12.1.1. Independent Clause Identification
12.1.2. Dependent Clauses
Exercises 12.1.2. Clause Identification
12.2. Clauses by Function
12.2.1. Noun Clauses
Exercises 12.2.1. Noun Clause Identification
12.2.1.1. Direct/Indirect Speech
12.2.1.1.1. Direct Speech Statements
12.2.1.1.2. Indirect Speech Statements
Exercises 12.2.1.1.a. Direct/Indirect Statement Identification
12.2.1.1.3. Transforming Direct Speech into Indirect Speech
12.2.1.1.3.1. Pronoun Changes
12.2.1.1.3.2. Tense Change/Backshift
12.2.1.1.3.3. Temporal Adverb Changes
Exercises 12.2.1.1.3. Transforming Direct Speech into Indirect Speech
12.2.1.1.4. Direct/Indirect Speech Requests/Commands
Exercises 12.2.1.1.4. Direct/Indirect Speech Requests/Commands
12.2.1.1.5. Direct/Indirect Questions
Table 12.2.1.1.5. Yes/No vs. wh-Word Questions
Exercises 12.2.1.1.5. Direct/Indirect Questions
12.2.1.1.6. Direct/Indirect Exclamations
Exercises 12.2.1.1.6. Direct/Indirect Exclamations
12.2.2. Adjective/Relative Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.a. Adjective & Noun Clause Identification
12.2.2.1. Functions of Adjective/Relative Clauses
12.2.2.1.1. Subject Relative Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.1.1. Adjective/Relative Clause & Relative Pronoun Function Identification
12.2.2.1.2. Object Relative Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.1.2. Adjective/Relative Clause & Relative Pronoun Function Identification
12.2.2.1.3. Possessive Relative Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.1.3. Subject/Object/Possessive Adjective/Relative Clause Identification
12.2.2.1.4. Other Relative Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.1.4.a. Relative Pronoun Function Identification
Exercises 12.2.2.1.4.b. Adjective/Relative Clause & Relative Pronoun Function Identification
12.2.2.2. Restrictive/Nonrestrictive Clauses
12.2.2.2.1. Restrictive Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.2.1. Restrictive Clause & Clause Function Identification
12.2.2.2.2. Nonrestrictive Clauses
Exercises 12.2.2.2. Restrictive & Nonrestrictive Adjective/Relative Clause Identification
Exercises 12.2.2.b. Adjective/Relative Clause Identification
12.2.3. Adverb Clauses
12.2.3.1. Adverb Clause Tense Patterns
Exercises 12.2.3. Adverb Clause & Clause Function Identification
Exercises 12.2. Clause & Clause Function Identification
Chapter 12 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 12: Clauses
Table 12. Dependent Clauses
Chapter 12 Review
Crossword 1.1.
Crossword 1.2
Answer Key for Chapter 12 Review
Crossword 1.1.
Crossword 1.2.
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 12

Chapter 13 – Sentence Types
13.i. Chapter Overview
13.i.i. Preview
13.i.ii. Vocabulary
13. Sentence Types
13.1. Simple Sentence
Exercises 13.1. Simple Sentence Identification
13.2. Compound Sentence
Exercises 13.2. Compound Sentence Identification
13.2.1. Compound Subjects & Verbs
13.2.1.1. Compound Subject
Exercises 13.2.1.1. Compound Subject Identification
13.2.1.2. Compound Verb
Exercises 13.2.1.2. Compound Verb Identification
13.3. Complex Sentence
Exercises 13.3. Complex Sentence Identification
13.4. Compound-Complex Sentence
Exercises 13.4. Compound-Complex Sentence Identification
Exercises 13. Sentence Type Identification
Chapter 13 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 13: Sentence Types
Chapter 13 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 13 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 13

Chapter 14 – Common Mistakes
14.i. Chapter Overview
14i.i. Preview
14.i.ii. Vocabulary
14. Common Mistakes
14.1. Sentence Fragments
Exercises 14.1. Sentence Fragment Identification & Correction
14.2. Run-On Sentences & Comma Splices
14.2.1. Run-On Sentences
Exercises 14.2.1. Run-on Identification & Correction
14.2.2. Comma Splices
14.2.2.1. Transitional Adverbs
Exercises 14.2.2. Comma Splice Identification & Correction
Exercises 14.2. Run-on & Comma Splice Identification & Correction
14.3. Parallel Structure
Exercises 14.3. Parallel Structure Identification & Correction
14.4. Modifier Errors
14.4.1. Dangling Modifiers
14.4.1.1. Dangling Modifiers in Passive Voice
Exercises 14.4.1. Dangling Modifier Identification & Correction
14.4.2. Misplaced Modifiers
14.4.2.1. Individual Words
14.4.2.2. Phrases
14.4.2.3. Clauses
Exercises 14.4.2. Misplaced Modifier Identification & Correction
14.4.3. Squinting Modifiers
Exercises 14.4.3. Squinting Modifiers Identification & Correction
14.4.4. Split Infinitives
Exercises 14.4.4. Split Infinitive Identification & Correction
14.5. Other Modifier Mistakes
14.5.1. Subject/Verb Separation
14.5.2. Verb/Direct Object Separation
Exercises 14.5. Other Modifier Error Identification & Correction
Exercises 14. Error Identification & Correction
Chapter 14 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 14: Common Mistakes
Chapter 14 Review
Answer Key for Chapter 14 Review
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 14

Chapter 15 – Punctuation and Usage
15.i. Chapter Overview
15.i.i. Preview
15.i.ii. Vocabulary
15.1. Punctuation and Usage
15.2. Sentence-Level Punctuation
15.2.1. Sentence-End Punctuation
15.2.1.1. Periods
15.2.1.2. Exclamation Marks
15.2.1.3. Question Marks
15.2.1.3.1. Interrogative Sentences
15.2.1.3.2. Question Tags
Exercises 15.2.1. Proper Sentence-End Punctuation Use
15.2.2. Sentence-Internal Punctuation
15.2.2.1. Commas
15.2.2.1.1. Commas with Introductory Words, Phrases, & Clauses
Exercises 15.2.2.1.1. Proper Use of Commas with Introductory Words, Phrases, & Clauses
15.2.2.1.2. Commas in Compound Sentences
Exercises 15.2.2.1.2. Proper Use of Commas in Compound Sentences
15.2.2.1.3. Commas in Complex Sentences
Exercises 15.2.2.1.3. Proper Use of Commas in Complex Sentences
15.2.2.1.4. Commas with Appositive & Parenthetical Expressions
Exercises 15.2.2.1.4. Proper Comma Use with Appositive & Parenthetical Expressions
Exercises 15.2.2.1. Proper Comma Use
15.2.2.2. Semicolons & Colons
15.2.2.2.1. Semicolons
15.2.2.2.1.1. Semicolons & Compound Sentences
Exercises 15.2.2.2.1. Proper Semicolon Use
15.2.2.2.2. Colons
Exercises 15.2.2.2.2. Proper Colon Use
Exercises 15.2.2.2. Proper Semicolon & Colon Use
15.2.2.3. Dashes
Exercises 15.2.2.3. Proper Dash Use
15.2.2.4. Quotation Marks
15.2.2.4.1. Double Quotation Marks
15.2.2.4.2. Single Quotation Marks
Exercises 15.2.2.4. Proper Quotation-Mark Use
Exercises 15.2.2. Proper Sentence-Internal Punctuation Use
Exercises 15.2. Proper Sentence-Level Punctuation Use
15.3. Word-Level Punctuation
15.3.1. Period
Exercises 15.3.1. Proper Period Use
15.3.2. Hyphens
Exercises 15.3.2. Proper Hyphen Use
15.3.3. Apostrophes
15.3.3.1. Possession
Exercises 15.3.3.1. Possession Identification & Proper Apostrophe Use
15.3.3.2. Contractions
Exercises 15.3.3.2. Contraction Identification & Proper Apostrophe Use
15.3.3.3. Plurals of Nonconventional Forms
Exercises 15.3.3.3. Plurals & Proper Apostrophe Use
Exercises 15.3.3. Proper Apostrophe Use
15.3.4. Italics, Underlining, & Quotation Marks
15.3.4.1. Italics
Exercises 15.3.4.1. Proper Italics Use
15.3.4.2. Quotation Marks
Exercises 15.3.4.2. Proper Quotation Mark Use
15.3.5. Parentheses, Brackets, & Ellipsis
Exercises 15.3.5. Proper Parentheses, Brackets, & Ellipsis Use
15.3.6. Capitalization
Exercises 15.3.6. Proper Capitalization Use
Exercises 15.3. Proper Word-Level Punctuation Use
Chapter 15 Cumulative Application
Summary Points for Chapter 15: Punctuation & Usage
Chapter 15 Review
Sentence-End Punctuation
Sentence-Internal Punctuation 15.1.
Sentence-Internal Punctuation 15.2.
Sentence-Internal Punctuation 15.3.
Sentence Types & Punctuation
Word-Internal Punctuation 15.1.
Word-Internal Punctuation 15.2.
Answer Key for Chapter 15 Review
Sentence-End Punctuation
Sentence-Internal Punctuation 15.1.
Sentence-Internal Punctuation 15.2. & 3.
Sentence Types & Punctuation
Word-Internal Punctuation 15.1. & 2.
More To Do with Grammar: Chapter 15

 

 

 

Gulsat Aygen

Gülşat Aygen, is a professor of linguistics with more than thirty years of experience in teaching theoretical linguistics and English both to native speakers and to ESL students at prestigious multinational companies and higher education institutions in the US and abroad. She received her PhD in linguistics at Harvard University, where she taught linguistics and English and earned Excellence in Teaching Awards. She is the first of the two non-native speakers of English who have ever taught English at Harvard. In 2004, she joined the faculty at the English Department at Northern Illinois University, where she is currently a Distinguished Teaching Professor. Throughout her career, she has been teaching Contemporary Theories of Linguistics, English Linguistics, English Grammar, Dialects of English, Language and Gender as well as Syntax, Morphology, and Phonology. She has also been serving as a translator, editor of translated books, linguistic consultant, and an expert-witness in linguistics for not-for-profit organizations and for-profit companies. 

She has been publishing extensively on theoretical aspects of language, as well as descriptive grammars of languages, and on textbook pedagogy.  Her primary expertise is in theoretical linguistics, but her interests expand to applied linguistics, English Linguistics, sociolinguistics, grammars of less-studied languages, brain & language, and translation studies. Her publications include dozens of journal articles and many chapters in books on syntax, morphology, applied linguistics, and neurolinguistics, and translations of books, in addition to several books she authored: Finiteness, Case and Clausal Architecture (2004), Kurmanjî Kurdish (2007), Zazaki/Kirmancki Kurdish (2010),  English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach (2014, 2015, 2016).  

Marshaling the insights of the non-native speaker, the theoretical linguist, and the college professor in an English department, Aygen offers a wonderfully comprehensive description and explanation of the structure and use of English. Her publication English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach​, is helpful and attractive to a wide variety of interest groups.
Lilith Haynes
Director of the Institute for English Language Programs at Harvard University

English Grammar: A Descriptive Linguistic Approach is just the kind of book I wish I had had as a HS teacher and college instructor when teaching grammar, usage, and stylistics to my mostly language-innocent students. Aygen (and her famous cat, Kibo, and pet goat, Tuvinsky—in side-box asides) have actually made the study of school grammar fun. The book is laid out in order of increasing complexity—from open & closed-class single words to predicate structures to clauses to standard punctuation. Having myself read the book from beginning to end, I heartily recommend it to those taking grammar classes and people studying alone and/or online.
John Knapp
Professor of Modern British and American Literature, and English Education; editor of the literary journal Style. Since 2010, he has been a reviewer of teacher education programs in various states for the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.


 

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