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Facility and Event Management: Applications in Sport

Author(s): Jeffrey Petersen, Lawrence Judge, John J Miller

Edition: 1

Copyright: 2017

Pages: 674

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Sports stadiums are becoming bigger, louder, and more exciting. With so many people in one area, it takes quite a bit of planning and work to pull off an event successfully. This is where facility and event management comes in.

Perfect for both undergraduate and graduate level courses, Facility and Event Management covers everything from the history of sport facilities, to the construction of new stadiums, to customer service, and booking events.

Available in print and eBook editions, Facility and Event Management by Jeffrey Petersen, Larry Judge, and John Miller:

  • Is written by authors with experience! Petersen, Judge, and Miller bring a combined 63 years of teaching experience and 32 years working in the field.
  • Provides a balanced approach between the theoretical and research-based approaches of academia and the pragmatic best practices of professionals in the field.
  • Is Student Friendly! Each chapter includes objectives, key terms / acronyms, discussion questions, case studies / scenarios to reinforce and assess concepts presented.
  • Is Practical! The text contains Practitioner Spotlights, Technology & Innovation Spotlights, and Management in Action vignettes that connect theoretical concepts to practical, real-life applications.
  • Is Easy to Adopt! PowerPoint slide decks, test banks, case studies, and even a sample syllabus are provided to adopters.

Preface 
Primary Authors 

Chapter 1 History of Sport Facilities and Events 
Introduction 
Sport Events and Facilities in Ancient Greece 
Ancient Olympia 
Rome 
Amphitheaters 
Circuses and Circus Maximus 
Panathenaic Stadium—A Bridge from Past to Present 
Historic Facilities in America 
Development of Sport Facilities in the United States 
History of Key Sport Events 
World Cup 
Super Bowl 
Place Attachment 
History of Facility/Event Management as a Profession 
Professional Organizations 
International Facility Management Association (IFMA) 
International Association of Venue Managers (IAVM) 
Stadium Managers Association (SMA) 
College Event and Facility Management Association (CEFMA) 
Association of Luxury Suite Directors (ALSD) 
National Center for Spectator Sports Safety & Security (NCS4) 
National Association of Sport Commissions (NASC) 
Th e International Festivals and Event Association (IFEA) 
Conclusion 
Chapter Discussion Questions 
Suggested Activites 
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 2 Types of Facilities and Events in Sport 
Introduction
Sport Facilities
Stadiums 
Racing Venues 
Arenas 
The Field House 
Indoor Practice Facilities 
Gyms and Gymnasiums 
Natatoriums and Aquatic Facilities 
Recreation Centers 
The Sportsplex 
Sport Events
Stand-Alone Events 
League Events 
Tour Events 
Sport Festivals 
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References
Appendix A

Chapter 3 Basic Management Theories and Perspectives
Introduction
Process
Adam Smith 
JB Say 
Frederick Taylor 
Peter Drucker 
W. Edwards Deming 
People
Robert Owen 
Elton Mayo 
Abraham Maslow 
Douglas McGregor 
Frederick Herzberg 
Victor Vroom 
Daniel Goleman 
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 4 Strategic Planning and Budgeting
Introduction
Role of Strategy in the Business Plan
Comprehensive Master Plan 
Strategic Facility Plan 
Integrated Planning 
Facility Planning Committee
Responsibilities of the Strategic Planning Committee
Surveys and Interviews 
Scenario Planning 
Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) 
SMART Process 
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threat (SWOT) Analysis 
Strategic Creative Analysis (SCAN) 
Benchmarking and Review of Current Offerings 
Emerging Trends and Issues
Organizational Philosophy 
Facility Accessibility Issues 
Facility Stainability Issues 
External Forces 
Developing and Communicating the Strategic Plan
Budgeting
Budget Preparing
Budget Planning Factors
Fixed Costs versus Variable Costs 
Typical Expense Categories 
Event Revenue 
Classification and Types of Budget
Master Budget 
Operating Budget 
Financial Budget 
Budget Development Methods
Line Item Budget 
Performance Budget 
Program Budget 
Zero Based Budgeting (ZBB) 
Planning-Programming-Budgeting-Evaluation System (PPBES) 
Capitol Expenditure Budget 
Cash Budget 
Budget Preparations
Conclusion
Key Learning Points
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References
Appendix 4.1

Chapter 5 Managing Human Capitol 
Introduction
I. The Staffing Process— Job Analysis, Recruitment, and Selection 
Legal Regulations 
Job Analysis 
Job Descriptions 
Attracting Potential Applicants 
Selecting an Appropriate Candidate 
Interviews—Style and Content 
Illegal Inquiries 
Worker Classifications 
Exempt versus Non-Exempt Employees 
Volunteers 
II. Managing Employee Performance and Development 
Discipline 
Training and Development 
Method of Training 
III. Employee Well-Being
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) 
Workplace Violence 
Negligent Hiring 
Employee Wellness Programs/Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) 
IV. Employee Compensation and Benefit Packages
Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 
Employee Benefit 
Unemployment Insurance 
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) 
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 
Conclusion
Key Learning Points
Mini Case Study
Chapter Discussion Questions
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 6 Facility Construction/Planning Process and Building Life Cycle 
Introduction
Facility Concept Design
Design Principles 
Architect Involvement 
Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems 
Lighting 
Life Cycle Planning
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Basic Life Cycle Analysis Calculation 
Basic Formula for Calculating Life Cycle Cost 
Life Cycle Cost Analysis Works for Small Decisions 
Simple Formula for Calculating Life Cycle Cost
Life Cycle Cost Analysis Works for Big Decisions
Life Cycle Assessments 
Cradle-to-Cradle
Life Cycle Assessment Stages 
Facility Space Considerations
Primary Activity Spaces 
Multipurpose Sports Fields 
Soil Testing 
Environmental Considerations 
Geographic Location 
Multipurpose Indoor Sport Spaces 
Multipurpose Unique Offerings 
Spectator Seating Issues 
Spectator Amenities 
Line of Sight 
Stadium or Arena Concourse Areas 
Ancillary Spaces 
Locker Room Considerations 
Storage and Equipment Room Considerations 
Laundry Rooms 
Toilets 
Transgender Facilities 
Staff Offices 
Traffic Flow Issues 
Safety Design Considerations 
Construction Processes
Phase I—Pre-Planning Phase 
Phase II—Programming Phase 
Phase III—Schematic Design Phase 
Phase IV—Design Development Phase 
Phase V—Construction Document Phase 
Phase VI—Bidding Phase 
Phase VII—Construction Phases 
Conclusion
Mini Case Study
Chapter Discussion Questions
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 7 Facility Maintenance 
Introduction
Facility Management Communication
Routine Maintenance
Exterior Inspection Areas 
Interior Inspection Areas 
Capital Improvement Planning
Purposes of Capital Improvement Planning 
Creating a Capital Improvement Plan 
Differences between Maintenance Costs and Capital Expenditures
Work Order Systems and Tracking
Tracking 
Work Order Software 
Increasing Tracking Efficiency 
Housekeeping and Custodial Issues
Outsourcing Custodial and Housekeeping Services 
Advantages od In-House Custodial Operations 
Mechanical Engineers
Flooring Selection and Maintenance
Deciding on a Surface 
Properties of Sports Flooring 
Differences between Area-Elastic and Point-Elastic Systems 
Synthetic Turf Selection and Maintenance
Synthetic Turf Maintenance 
Advances in Synthetic Turf 
Synthetic Turf Injury Research 
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 8 Changeover Management and Temporary Venues
Introduction
Changeover Management
Communication 
Planning 
Staging 
Equipment 
Common Types of Changeovers
Practice and Competition 
Hockey and Basketball 
Arena to Other Sports 
Football/Soccer and Baseball 
Sport Facility and Other Entertainment 
Sport Facility and Formal Events 
Temporary Venues
Temporary Venue Comparison 
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
Management in Action
References

Chapter 9 Sport Facility Safety and Security
Introduction
Safety and Security
Emergency Situation Definition
Emergency Action Plan
Rationale for the Development of an Emergency Action Plan 
Emergency Action Plan as a Federal Requirement 
Components of an Emergency Action Plan (EAP) 
Establishing an Emergency Action Plan 
Emergency Action Plan Procedures 
Emergency Medical Staffing
Fire 
Severe Weather 309
Terrorism 
Security Training Issues
Active Shooter 
Bomb Threat 
Evacuation Procedures 
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 10 Customer Service
Introduction
Customer Satisfaction 
Customer Categories 
Frontline Employee Training
ADA Implications on Customer Service
Going Beyond “Reasonable” for an Overlooked Population 
ADA Electronic Accessibility 
Parking
Ticketing
Ancillary Services
Merchandizing 
Food & Beverage 
Conclusion
Practitioner Spotlight
Mini Case Study
References

Chapter 11 Alcohol Management
Introduction
Forecasting Beverage Sales
Forecasting Using Size and Scope Example 
Sale Forecasting 
Sales Mix
Managing Beverage Cost Percentage
Purchasing Beverage Products
Bottles, Cans, or Cups: Making the Best Choice of Beer Service Containers 
Receiving and Storing Beverage Products
Outsourcing of Alcohol Sales at Sports Events
Managing Alcohol Consumption Risks 
Tailgating at Sporting Events
Motives to Drink at Sporting Events 
Spectator Drinking at Sporting Events 
Student Drinking at Sporting Events 
Premises Liability
Duty to Control Third Party Acts
Implementation of Alcohol Risk Management Strategies
Recommendations
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 12 Media Support
Introduction
Sport Media
External, Internal, and In-House Media 
Credentialing 
Television Needs 
Radio Needs 
Print Media Needs 
Professional Organizations
Digital and Social Media
Smartphones and Apps 
Twitter 
Fantasy Sport Leagues 
Internet and Cellular Service Support
LED Placement and Use
Audio Needs and Acoustics
Entertainment vs. Coverage 
Conclusion
Practitioner Spotlight
Mini Case Study
Chapter Discussion Questions
References

Chapter 13 Booking and Scheduling Events 
Introduction
Booking
Regulation of Booking Agents and Agencies 
Scheduling
Gantt Charts 
Diverse Scheduling Options 
Negotiation the Basic Terms of a Contract
Details of a Contract
Offer 
Consideration 
Intention 
Acceptance 
Contract Clauses 
Verbal Contracts
Breach of Contract
Damages
Liquidated Damages 
Insurance and Indemnification
Insurance 
Indemnification 
Holding Dates
Hold Date Challenges 
Deposits
Non-Refundable Deposit 
Riders
Hospitality Rider 
The Technical Rider 
Security Rider 
Merchandise Rider 
Timing Schedule/Run of Show
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 14 The Bidding Processes
Introduction 
The Basic Steps in the Bidding Process
Specifications 
Request for Bids 
Bidding 
Reviewing the Bids 
Awarding the Contract or Bid 
Stages of Bidding: RFIs, RFPs and RFBs
RFIs 
RFPs 
RFBs 
Bid Team/Committee 
Bid Preparation 
Bid and Host Fees 
Factors for Successful Bids on Mega-Events 
Accountability 
Political Support 
Relationship Marketing 
Ability 
Infrastructure 
Bid Team Composition 
Communication and Exposure 
Existing Facilities 
General Bidding Information
NCAA Bidding
IOC Bidding
Criteria of a Host City
Benefits of Bidding and Hosting
Legacies
Politics and Bidding
Modern Olympics and Business
Urban Development of Host Cities and the Consequences
Bidding Scandals
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Practitioner Spotlight 
Mini Case Study
References

Chapter 15 Mega-Events and Sport Festivals
Introduction
Defining Mega-Events
Mega-Event Characteristics and Measures
Positive Impacts of Mega-Events 
Negative Impacts of Mega-Events 
Evolution of Mega-Events
International and National Sport Festivals 
State Games
Facility Considerations
Competitive Venues 
Athlete Housing and Dining Facilities 
Other Infrastructure Development 
Special Considerations for Mega-Events
Conclusion
Mini Case Study
Chapter Discussion Questions
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 16 Tour and League Events
Introduction
Sport League Organization
Development of American League-Based Sports
Special Considerations for Leagues 
Tour Events
INDYCar Series 
WTA Tour 
Impact of Tour Events
Special Considerations for Tour Events 
Volunteerism in Tour and League Events
Customer Satisfaction in Tour and League Events
Cross Over of League and Tour Events
Conclusion
Mini Case Study
Chapter Discussion Questions
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 17 Facility and Event Impact and Legacy 
Introduction
Facility Costs and Financing Trends in the US Professional Leagues
Economic Impact Analysis
Economic Impact Analysis Variables 
Misapplication in Economic Impact Analysis 
Bias in Economic Impact Analysis 
Multipliers 
Facility Financing 
Legacy
Facility Legacy Examples 
Conclusion
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
Practitioner Spotlight
References

Chapter 18 Sport and Recreation Facilities as Leverageable Assets
Introduction
People Make the Place: Why Recruiting Investment Matters
Turnover is Costly: Why Retention Investment Matters
Connecting Recruiting and Retention Efforts to Facilities
How Facilities Can Impact Recruiting 
How Facilities Can Impact Retention 
Facilities and the Recruitment and Retention of College and University Students 
Facilities and the Recruitment and Retention of NCAA Division I Student-athletes 
Facilities and the Recruitment and Retention of Sport and Recreation Professionals 
Facilities and the Recruitment and Retention of Sport Consumers 
Facilities and the Recruitment and Retention of Sport Franchises 
Conclusion
Practitioner Spotlight
Technology & Innovation Spotlight
Technology & Innovation Spotlight
Industry Spotlight
Chapter Discussion Questions
Mini Case Study
References

Glossary

Acronyms

Index

Jeffrey Petersen

Dr. Petersen is an Associate Professor of Sport Management, director of the Graduate Program in Sport Management, and the coordinator of graduate programs for Baylor’s School of Education. Prior to his time at Baylor, Petersen served as coordinator of the Sport Administration undergraduate program at Ball State University, the division chair and Sport Management program director at Loras College, and has experience as a teacher, coach, athletic director, and New Mexico Activities Association district chair at the high school level.

Dr. Petersen’s research and scholarship has received recognition from the Sport Marketing Association naming him Best Paper Award winner in 2012 and a best paper finalist in 2011. His research has also been recognized by the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance with the designation of Research Fellow. He has published more than 65 peer-reviewed journals and has made over 125 presentations at state, national, and international conferences. Petersen’s primary research areas include sport facility design and management, sport management curriculum and pedagogy, the Youth Olympic Games, and interscholastic sport sponsorship. He currently serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Facility Planning, Design and Management and has published work in leading journals such as the International Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Journal of Venue and Event Management and Sport Marketing Quarterly. Petersen’s academic training includes a Ph.D. from the University of New Mexico with an emphasis in Sports Administration, an M.A. from New Mexico Highlands University in Human Performance and Sport, and a B.S. from Taylor University in Biology and Secondary Education.

Lawrence Judge

Dr. Judge is a professor and the Associate Chair of the School of Kinesiology at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. From 2009 to 2016 Dr. Judge has been involved in 220 peer-reviewed presentations with participation in leading state, national and international conferences. His research has led to a strong scholarly contribution in written forms including authorship of 121 peer-reviewed manuscripts from 2009-2015. This includes 65 first-author publications in prestigious journals such the International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, and the International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. Dr. Judge has also been active in the area of textbook publishing, contributing 12 textbook chapters and has co-authored 3 books. Dr. Judge co-authored the textbook, Sport Governance and Policy Development: An ethical approach to managing sport in the 21st century, and authored the books The Complete Track and Field Coaches’ Guide to Conditioning for the Throwing Events and The Shot Put Handbook. He was recently honored by the Society of Health and Physical Activity (SHAPE) as a research fellow and was named a registered strength and conditioning coach emeritus by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA).

At the national level within the coaching education field, Dr. Judge has served as the President for the National Council for the Accreditation of Coaching Education and as the National Chairman of the United States Track and Field Coaching Education. Dr. Judge has lectured in 37 different countries and serves as a level II and level III instructor in the IAAF coaching education program, an instructor/trainer in the International Paralympic Committee Coaching Education program and also lectures in the Professional Figure Skaters Association nationwide coach’s education program.

John J Miller

Dr. Miller serves as a full professor of Sport Management at Troy University in Troy, AL. Prior to his time at Troy, Miller served in a number of roles in the university and college levels as a professor and department curriculum and assessment coordinator at Texas Tech University and as an assistant professor at Western New Mexico University, Saint Mary’s (MN) University, and Willamette University. Dr. Miller is a Research Fellow in the Research Consortium as well as the Sport and Recreation Law Association.  He is also a Fellow in the North American Society of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance Professionals.

Dr. Miller has published more than 70 refereed articles in peer-reviewed journals and has made over 219 presentations at regional, national, and international conferences. Miller is the co-author of the book, A Practical Guide to Sport Management Internships and has authored over 35 chapters in various publications. He received the Distinguished Scholar Award from the School and Community Safety Society of America in 2005. Miller’s primary areas of research include legal issues in sport and recreation risk management, sport marketing and promotion affecting consumer behavior in sports, issues dealing with sport management pedagogy, and issues in student leadership.

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