Fluency: Questions, Answers, and Evidence-Based Strategies

Author(s): Patricia Smith, Melanie Walski, Jerry Johns, Roberta L. Berglund

Edition: 5

Copyright: 2020

Pages: 162, 166 for LSI


Details: Print Product |

  • Are you trying to help your students become more fluent readers?
  • Are you doing progress monitoring? 
  • Do you think that differentiating fluency interventions can help you respond to individual differences among your students?

Help is on the way. This easy to use resource is written with teachers in mind. The goal is to help readers include fluency strategies in their instructional repertoire without adding hours of preparation time. Fluency is for classroom teachers, prospective teachers, reading/literacy specialists and coaches, and other professionals involved in schools and educational agencies. This compact, focused book helps discusses and describes fluency, offers many strategies to strengthen fluency instruction for students in regular classrooms as well as in resource rooms, and provides some ways to help monitor students’ progress. Response to Intervention (RTI), part of the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), is intended to ensure that all students receive excellent classroom instruction. For those students who struggle, targeted interventions and progress monitoring are used to help assess growth (RTI, 2009).

The new edition of this compact, focused book provides over 30 ready-to-use strategies to help teachers, reading specialists, and other school professionals understand and strengthen fluency instruction for student in regular classrooms, resource rooms, and RTI programs. You'll get specific strategies targeted to six reader types so interventions can be more beneficial to small groups or individual students within RTI programs. Assessments are also included for monitoring students' progress in grades one through eight, along with common questions and answers teachers may have about fluency.

  • Ready-to-use worksheets with permission to reproduce for classroom use.
  • A quick reference chart to show how the strategies can be differentiated for six types of readers.
  • Strategies organized for easy use with goals, materials needed, reader type, description, step-by-step procedure, and evaluation.
  • Co-published with the International Reading Association.

Enter Here: A Quick Orientation to Fluency
About the Authors

P A R T  1
Questions and Answers about Fluency

Overview and Anticipation Guide
1. Why Another Book on Fluency?
2. What Is Fluency?
3. Why Is Fluency Important?
4. How Does Oral Reading Fluency Relate to Silent Reading Fluency?
5. How Is Rate of Reading Determined?
6. What Oral Reading Rates Are Provided by Research?
7. How Should the Norms for Oral Reading Be Used?
8. What Are Some Ways to Assess Fluency?
9. What’s Wrong with Round-Robin Oral Reading?
10. What Part of the Reading Program Should Be Devoted to Fluency Instruction?
11. What Insights Can Be Drawn from Research and Expert Opinion?
12. What Factors Can Impact Fluency?
13. When Should Fluency Instruction Begin?
14. What Are the Basic Principles of Fluency Instruction?
15. What Is the Purpose of Fluency Instruction?

P A R T  2
Foundational Principles of Fluency Instruction; Evidence-Based Strategies, Activities, and Resources

Foundational Principles of Fluency Instruction

Building Blocks for Fluency
Developing a Base of Language, Sounds, and Words

Teacher Read Alouds
Language Experience
Phonemic Awareness
Basic Sight Vocabulary
Word Identification

Shared Reading
Modeling Fluent Oral Reading

Shared Book Experience
Echo Reading
Choral Reading
Antiphonal Reading
Super Signals
Reading Punctuation
Phrased Reading
Fluency Development Lesson

Assisted Reading
Providing Support for the Reader

Paired Reading
Neurological Impress
Structured Repeated Reading
Simplified Repeated Reading
Student Self-Managed Repeated Reading
Whole-Class Repeated Reading
Record, Check, Chart
Reading While Listening
Klassroom Karaoke

Performance Reading
Reading Aloud for the Enjoyment of Others

Say It Like the Character
Guess the Emotion
Just Joking
Readers Theater
Performance Poetry

Independent Reading
Reading on Their Own

Read and Relax
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR)
Fluency Jars
Fluency Walkabout

Integrated Strategies
Developing Fluent Readers Incorporating Writing, Speaking, and Listening

Oral Recitation Lesson
Book Bits
Radio Reading

Appendix A
Answers to Anticipation Guide for Fluency

Appendix B
Resources for Assessing and Monitoring Fluency Progress

Four-Point Fluency Rubric
Four-Point Fluency Rubric for Oral Reading
Holistic Oral Reading Fluency Scale
Class Fluency Snapshot—Primary Grades
Class Fluency Snapshot—Upper Grades
Cumulative Record for Fluency Checks
Class Record of Fluency Progress Monitoring


Patricia Smith

Peet Smith earned her Ph.D. from University of Maryland, College Park in Special Education with a focus on Literacy and Reading. Dr. Smith’s research interests include upper elementary and middle school students’ engagement in literacy learning, particularly English Learners’ and struggling readers’ engagement in reading expository texts. She has taught elementary and middle school reading at a parochial school in Philadelphia, PA and a charter school Lubbock, TX. Dr. Smith is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Northern Illinois University.

Melanie Walski

Melanie Walski earned her Ph.D. from University of Illinois at Chicago in Curriculum and Instruction with a focus on Language, Literacy, and Culture. Dr. Walski’s research includes the impact of policy on literacy instructional practice; the aspects of policy that are most influential on teachers’ sensemaking of literacy teaching and learning; and emergent literacy curriculum development. Dr. Walski was a teacher in the Los Angeles Unified School District in California, a reading specialist at Dominican University in Illinois, and a literacy consultant in Chicago. Dr. Walski currently is an assistant professor at Northern Illinois University where she teaches literacy courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Jerry Johns

Jerry L. Johns has been recognized as a distinguished teacher, writer, outstanding teacher educator, and popular professional development speaker for schools, school districts, and conferences. He has taught students from kindergarten through graduate school and also served as a reading teacher. Professor Johns spent his career at Northern Illinois University. He served in leadership positions at the local, state, national, and international levels. He has been president of the International Literacy Association, the Illinois Reading Council, the Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers, and the Northern Illinois Reading Council. He also served on the Board of Directors for each of these organizations as well as the American Reading Forum. Dr. Johns has authored or coauthored nearly 300 articles, monographs, and research studies as well as over 40 professional books. His Basic Reading Inventory, now in the 12th edition, is widely used in undergraduate and graduate classes as well as by practicing teachers.

Roberta L. Berglund

Roberta L. (Bobbi) Berglund has received honors for outstanding service throughout her career, which includes serving as a classroom teacher, reading specialist, ELL resource teacher, director of Title I programs, and director of literacy. Dr. Berglund has also been a member of the reading faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater and has taught undergraduate and graduate reading courses at Northern Illinois University, Rockford University, National Louis University, and Aurora University. Dr. Berglund has worked with school districts and state education agencies in developing curriculum materials, assessments, and leading professional development programs. She has been a speaker at state, national, and international conferences and a leader in professional organizations. Dr. Berglund is the author of over 50 publications and is the author or coauthor of 15 professional books.

"The findings of the National Reading Panel have emphasized just how critical reading fluency is to overall reading proficiency. Jerry Johns and Roberta Berglund have done a masterful job of creating a compendium of effective teaching strategies for promoting fluency in the elementary and middle grade classrooms. This is the kind of book that teachers will want to refer to again and again as they develop instruction that helps their students develop into fluent and engaged readers."
--Timothy Rasinski, Reading & Writing Center / Kent State University

Quick Guide to Fluency Strategies
Print this free 2-page PDF document created by the authors for you to keep as a quick reference while you are using the book.

Related ISBN's: 9781792406157, 9781792408861




ISBN 9781792406157

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