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General Psychology: The Science of the Mind

Author(s): Keisha Love, Nicole Martin, Tim Martin, Corinne McNamara, Lauren Taglialatela, Danelle Stevens-Watkins, Stacey Williams, Juliann Young

Edition: 1

Copyright: 2018

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General Psychology: The Science of the Mind is a state-of-the-art introduction to the field of psychology that is written to the interests and needs of today’s students.

More than just a textbook, General Psychology fuses a workbook within the framework of the text — encouraging students to not only be passive readers of psychology, but also active “doers” of psychology.

General Psychology: The Science of the Mind:

  • Promotes active learning!  Stimulating exercises motivate critical thinking, “hands on” applications actively connect students to the science of psychology, and quizzes enable students to monitor their progress.
  • Is updated! The authors have focused on the science of psychology and have woven themes of diversity throughout the book. An extensively revised chapter on Research Methods focuses on descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental designs and includes discussions of ethics for humans and nonhuman animals, sampling techniques, and an introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics. Current examples of psychological concepts in each chapter -bring the material alive.
  • Is practical!  The text discusses the Big Five Personality Traits and explores the roles that heredity and social influences play in our personality.  Greater emphasis was placed on the ways in which psychology is used in everyday life.
  • Is Interactive! An accompanying website includes web exercises, video links, interactive flash cards, PowerPoint presentations, test questions, and more.

Chapter 1 Psychology: The Science of the Mind and Behavior 
Learning Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
What Is Psychology 
The Four Goals of Psycholog 
Origins and History of Psychology 
Perspectives of Human Behavior 
Evolutionary perspective 
Psychodynamic Perspective 
Behavioral/Learning Perspective 
Humanistic Perspective 
Cognitive 
Biological Perspective 
Sociocultural Perspective 
Evaluation of the Perspectives 
The Profession and Practice of Psychology 
Specialties of Psychology 
Education of a Psychologist 
Employment Settings and Tasks 
About the Rest of This Book 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
1.1 Identifying Perspectives 
1.2 The Scientific Viewpoint of Psychology
Exercise 1.3

Chapter 2 Research Methods 
Learning Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Psychology as a science 
Thinking like a Scientist: Be Skeptical and Sourceful 
Question your thoughts and your conclusions 
Think about the quality of the Information 
Conduct a thorough search for information 
Revisit and re-evaluate information and use new information to rethink your conclusions 
The Scientific Method 
Hypothesize 
Operationalize 
Measure 
Evaluate 
Report, Revise, Replicate 
The Purposes of Research 
Research Participants 
Ethics 
Rational for Selecting a Representative Sample 
Research Designs 
Experimental Designs 
Correlational Research Methods 
Descriptive Design 
Data Collection Strategies 
Observational Techniques 
Survey 
Using Statistics to Summarize and Draw Conclusions 
Descriptive Statistics 
Inferential Statistics 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
2.1 Identifying Variables in Experiments 
2.2 Identifying Research Methods 
2.3 Research Design 

Chapter 3 Biopsychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Research Methods in Biopsychology 
Neurophysiology 
Neuroanatomy 
Sleep and Dreaming 
Stages of Sleep 
Questions about Dreaming 
Theories of Dreaming 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
3.1 Identifying Methods for Studying the Brain 
3.2 Identifying Brain Regions 
3.3 Identifying the Parts of a Neuron 

Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception 
Learning Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Sensation and Perception 
History and Methods 
The New Psychophysics 
Signal Detection Theory 
Perceptual Adaptation 
Perceptual Constancy 
Perceptual Contrast 
Perceptual Integration 
Vision 
The Stimulus for Vision 
The Human Eye 
Pathways to the Brain 
Color Vision 
Hearing 
The Stimulus for Hearing 
The Auditory System 
Coding for Pitch 
The Other Senses 
Somatosensation 
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell 
Object Perception 
Gestalt Psychology 
Depth Perception 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
4.1 Identifying Depth Cues 
4.2 Illusory Size Judgments 
4.3 Top-Down Processing 

Chapter 5 Learning 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Learning as Behavior Change 
Learning versus Performance 
Classical Conditioning 
Establishing Conditioned Responses 
Extinction-Eliminating Conditioned Response 
Generalization and Discrimination 
Applications of Classical Conditioning 
Operant Conditioning 
Reinforcement Procedures 
Shaping New Responses 
Techniques for Decreasing Rates of Inappropriate Responses 
Extinction 
Timeout 
Response Cost 
Concluding thoughts about Punishment 
Applications of Behavior Change Techniques 
Observational Learning 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
5.1 Identifying Terms in Classical Conditioning 
5.2 Identifying Reinforcement Schedules 
5.3 Identifying Types of Reinforcers 

Chapter 6 Cognitive Psychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Thinking as Computation 
Key Terms 
Attention 
Memory 
What Memory is Not 
Working Memory 
Long Term Memory 
Retrieval and Forgetting 
Amnesia 
Mnemonic Techniques 
Problem Solving 
Obstacles to Successful Problem Solving 
Reasoning 
Decision Making 
Risky Decisions 
Intelligence, Real and Artificial 
Artificial Intelligence 
The Cognitive Influence on Psychology 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
6.1 Identifying Memory Storage Systems 
6.2 Demonstrating a Levels-of-Processing Effect Using Incidental Learning Tasks 
6.3 Demonstrating the Serial Position Effect 

Chapter 7 Child Development 
Learning Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
The Concept of Development 
The Definition of Development 
Rationale to Study Children and Development 
Principles of Child Development 
Biological Foundations of Development 
Prenatal Development 
The Perinatal Period 
Infant Behavior 
Cognitive Development 
Jean Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory 
The Information-Processing Approach 
Social and Emotional Processes 
Expressing and Understanding Emotions 
The Origins of the Social and Emotional Relationship 
The Family and Parenting 
Parenting Styles 
Discipline 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
7.1 Observing a Child 
7.2 Testing Conservation 
7.3 Observing Attachment 

Chapter 8 Adolescence Adulthood 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Physical Development in Adolescence 
Physical Development in Adulthood 
Early Adulthood 
Middle Adulthood 
Late Adulthood 
Cognitive Development in Adolescence 
Formal Operational Thought 
Adolescent Egocentrism 
Moral Development 
Morality as the Product of Reasoning 
Cognitive Development in Adulthood 
Changes in Thinking and Memory Abilities 
Medical Conditions That Negatively Affect Cognitive Abilities 
Social Development in Adolescence 
Erikson’s Theory 
Identity Statuses 
Social Development in Adulthood 
Young Adulthood 
Middle Adulthood 
Late Adulthood 
Dealing with the Final Stage of Life: Death 
Widowhood 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
8.1 Adolescent Egocentrism 
8.2 The Social Clock Is Ticking 
8.3 Do You Want to Know? 

Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Motivation 
Motivation and Hunger 
Eating Disorders 
Motivation and Sex Drive 
Sexual Differentiation 
A Brief History of Human Sexuality 
The Sex Researchers 
Diversity in Sexual Preference 
Social Motives 
Achievement 
Power 
Affiliation 
Emotion 
Number of Emotions 
Universality of Emotions 
Identifying Emotions in Ourselves 
Identifying Emotions in Others 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
9.1 Supermarket Sweep 
9.2 Achievement Motive 
9.3 Identifying Emotions 

Chapter 10 Personality 
Learning Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
What is Personality? 
The Psychodynamic Approach 
The Humantistic Approach 
The Trait Approach 
The Social Learning or Social Cognitive Approach 
Personality: A Definition 
The Trait Approach 
Allport: The Idiographic and the Nomothetic Approaches 
Cattell and the Factor Analytic Approach 
Eysenck’s Three-Factor Solution 
The “Big Five” 
Heredity and Traits 
Do Traits Predict Behavior? 
The Psychodynamic Approach 
The Origins of Freud’s Theory 
Instincts 
The Structure of Personality 
Freud’s Model of the Mind 
Personality Development 
Defense Mechanisms 
The Humanistic Approach 
The Self 
The Behavioral Approach 
Social Cognitive Theory 
Locus of Control 
Reciprocal Determinism 
Personality Tests 
Objective Personality Test 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
10.1 Personality Analysis 
10.2 Personality Psychologists at Lunch 

Chapter 11 Abnormal Psychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Abnormal Psychology 
Real World Scenario 
Defining Abnormal 
Putting the Pieces Together: The Context 
Prevalence of Psychological Disorder 
Insanity is not a Psychological Disorder 
Civil Commitment 
Criminal Commitment 
Competency to Stand Trial 
Diagnostic Criteria: The DSM-5 
Issues in Diagnosis 
Benefits of Diagnosis 
Criticisms of Diagnosis 
Labels and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 
Two Warnings 
Assessment 
Anxiety Disorders 
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 
Panic Disorder 
Agoraphobia 
Phobias 
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 
Major Depressive Disorder 
Explanations for Depression 
Suicide 
Bipolar Disorder 
Schizophrenia 
Positive Symptoms 
Negative Symptoms 
Schizophrenia Subtypes 
Facts about Schizophrenia 
Explanations for Schizophrenia 
Dissociative Disorders 
Dissociative Amnesia 
Dissociative Fugue 
Dissociative Identity Disorder 
Personality Disorders 
Paranoid Personality Disorder 
Antisocial Personality Disorder 
Borderline Personality Disorder 
Dependent Personality Disorder 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
11.1 You Make the Diagnosis 
11.2 Characteristics of Abnormality 

Chapter 12 Therapy 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Therapy 
Paradigms of Psychological Disorders and Their Treatments 
Demonology 
Somatogenesis 
Psychogenic Perspective 
Housing of People Who Suffer from Mental Illness 
Psychoanalytic Therapy 
Free Association 
Dream Analysis 
Psychoanalytic Interpretation 
Behavior Therapy 
Classical-Conditioning Therapies 
Operant Conditioning Therapies 
Modeling Therapies 
Cognitive Therapies 
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (R-E-B-T) 
Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 
Humanistic Therapy 
Carl Roger’s Client-Centered Therapy 
Gestalt and Existentialism Therapy 
The Medical Approach 
Drug Therapy 
Electroconvulsive Therapy 
Psychosurgery 
Is Therapy Effective? 
Does the Type of Therapy Matter? 
Meta-Analysis 
Picking a Therapist 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
12.1 Therapists at Lunch 
12.2 Treatment Dilemmas 
12.3 Dream Interpretation 

Chapter 13 Health Psychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
What is Health Psychology? 
What is Stress? 
Sources of Stress 
Physiological Reactions to Stress: The General Adaptation Syndrome 
Cognitive and Emotional Reactions to Stress 
Measuring Stress 
Mediators of Stress 
Psychophysiological Disorders 
Coping with Stress 
High-Risk Behaviors That Can Affect Our Well-Being 
Risky Sexual Behavior 
Smoking 
Excess Alcohol Consumption 
Eating Habits 
Lack of Exercise 
Sleep Deprivation 
Changing Health Habits 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
13.1 Student Stress Scale 
13.2 The Hassles and Uplifts Scale 

Chapter 14 Social Psychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Key Terms 
Social Cognition 
Impression Formation 
Attribution Theory 
Social Influence 
Social Norms 
Social Roles 
Conformity 
Compliance 
Obedience 
Interpersonal Attraction 
Proximity 
Similarity 
Gain/Loss Theory 
Physical Attractiveness 
Altruistic Behavior 
Norm of Social Responsibility 
Norm of Reciprocity 
Cost-Reward Approach to Altruism 
Emergency Situations 
Other Variables in Helping 
Aggression 
Explaining Aggression 
Aggression as an Innate Behavior 
Aggression as a Learned Behavior 
References 
Summary 
Practice Quiz 
Exercises
14.1 Breaking a Social Norm 
14.2 Sixteen Traits, Part 1 
14.3 Sixteen Traits, Part 2 
14.4 Aggession in Children’s Television Programming 

Chapter 15 Multicultural Psychology 
Objectives 
Preview 
Defining Multiculturalism 
History of Multiculturalism 
Cultural Psychology 
Multiculturalism in the United States 
Multiculturalism as the Fourth Force 
Psychological Perspectives in Multiculturalism 
Why is Multiculturalism Important to Psychology? 
Collectivistic Versus Individualistic Cultures 
Acculturation 
Social Roles in Culture 
Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination 
Discrimination 
Critical Thinking Questions 
Is Diversity and Multiculturalism the Same? 
Future of Multiculturalism 
Chapter Summary 

References 

Index 

Keisha Love

Keisha Love is currently the Associate Provost for Faculty Development and Special Initiatives in the Office of the Provost at The University of Cincinnati. Previously, she was Chair of the Department of Psychology at Kennesaw State University. She received her B.S. in Psychology from Kentucky State University, her M.S. in Counseling Psychology from the University of Kentucky, and her Ph.D. from the University of Missouri-Kansas City. A licensed psychologist, Dr. Love’s research and clinical work focuses on the mental health of African American women, racism and sexism in academia, and the psychological and emotional well-being of college students of color. Dr. Love has taught Abnormal Psychology, Psychopathology, Career Counseling, Cognitive Assessment, Practicum, and Ethical-Legal Issues in Psychology.

Nicole Martin

Nicole Martin is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Kennesaw State University. She received her B.A. in Anthropology and Sociology from Mills College. She went on to earn an M.A. in Marriage, Family, and Child Counseling from Golden Gate University, and an M.S. and Ph.D in developmental psychology from the University of New Mexico. Her primary research areas are on emotional development in infants and toddlers and the adjustment to parenthood through international adoption. She teaches Lifespan Development, Infant and Child Development, Human Sexuality, Research Methods, and Senior Capstone courses.

Tim Martin

Tim Martin is an Associate Professor of psychology at Kennesaw State University. He has BA and MA degrees in psychology from New Mexico State University, and a Ph.D in psychology, with an emphasis in cognitive neuroscience, from the University of New Mexico. He was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Rochester from 2006-2009. He teaches courses in physiological and cognitive psychology, sensation and perception, research methods and statistics. His research interests include attention, perception, and the relationship between brain dynamics and cognitive models of simple tasks.

Corinne McNamara

Corinne McNamara is an Associate Professor of psychology at Kennesaw State University. She earned her undergraduate degree in psychology from the University of Mississippi. After earning her MA in neuroscience from Baylor University, Dr. McNamara returned to the University of Mississippi, where she earned her PhD in experimental psychology. Her primary interests are in neuropsychology and interpersonal violence research. Dr. McNamara teaches courses in introductory psychology, research methods and statistics, and physiological psychology.

Lauren Taglialatela

Lauren Taglialatela is an Associate Professor at Kennesaw State University. She has a BA from Furman University and MA and PhD degrees from Georgia State University, with an emphasis in cognitive psychology. Her primary research interests are incorporation of cognitive principles into the classroom and the utilization and efficacy of conservation messages in informal learning spaces. She teaches Research Methods, Experimental Psychology, Learning & Behavior, Cognitive Psychology, and Senior Seminar.

Danelle Stevens-Watkins

Danelle Stevens-Watkins is an Associate Professor of Counseling Psychology and faculty affiliate for the Center on Drug and Alcohol Research at the University of Kentucky. She has a BA in Psychology from the Univeristy of Louisville and a MA in Clinical Psychology from Spalding University. She completed her Ph.D. in 2008 from the University of Kentucky. She was an assistant professor at Spalding University from 2009–2013. Dr. Stevens-Watkins’s primary research areas are related to African American health broadly defined. She teaches Multicultural Psychology, Substance Abuse Counseling and Post-Master’s Clinical Practicum.

Stacey Williams

Stacey Williams is a Lecturer of Psychology at Kennesaw State University. She received her B.A, in Psychology from the University of South Carolina, and a M.A. in Educational Psychology after moving to Georgia. She teaches Introductory Psychology , Social Psychology, Lifespan Developmental Psychology and Diversity.

Juliann Young

Juliann Bosko Young is a Psychology Faculty Member at Cincinnati State Technical and Community College. She earned her B.A. from the University of Kentucky, her M.A. from Miami University and her Ph.D. from Capella University. Dr. Young’s primary research interests relate to cross-cultural adaptation, retention and persistence of students during sociocultural transitions, and college student leadership. She teaches a wide variety of psychology classes including Social Psychology, Lifespan Psychology, Psychology of Leadership, and Applied Leadership Theories.

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