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History and Tradition of Jazz

Author(s): Thomas E Larson

Edition: 6

Copyright: 2018

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History & Tradition of Jazz is not just a story of jazz music and musicians, but the struggle to achieve, create, and invent for the sake of this musical art form.  The publication features stories and legends of important events and people who shaped jazz history, while addressing how the music has been an important lightning rod for race issues.

History & Tradition of Jazz:

  • Includes a four-month subscription to Napster, an online music service with access to over 32 million songs. In addition, the text contains written synopses on over 60 important recordings from classic to contemporary jazz. - providing interesting insights and information that assist in understanding the music and the recording artists.
  • Describes how and why New Orleans, Chicago, Kansas City, and New York became important in the development of jazz.
  • Features a new chapter on Jazz in the New Millennium.  Topics include the emergence of electronic distribution of music and dwindling CD sales, globalization, technology in jazz, and the future of jazz.
  • Introduces additional key figures such as Ken Burns, Norah Jones, Kurt Elling, and more.
  • Includes expanded coverage on important jazz artists from the 21st century.

Preface 
Acknowledgments 
Music Analysis Cuts 
About the Author 

Chapter 1 Understanding and Defining Jazz
Introduction 
Understanding Jazz 
The Origins 
Defining Jazz 
The Jazz Soloist 
The Instruments of Jazz 
The Rhythm Section 
Commonly Used Wind Instruments 
Electronic Instruments 
Melody, Harmony, Rhythm, and Form 
Melody, Harmony, and Rhythm
Form 
Some Commonly Used Jazz Terms 
Melody 
Rhythm 
Harmony 
Some Other Jazz Terms 
Study Questions 

Chapter 2 African Music and the Pre-Jazz Era 
Introduction 
African Music 
African Musical Tradition 
Characteristics of African Music 
Music Analysis: “West African Drum Music” 
The Instruments of Africa 
The 19th Century African American 
Slavery 
Music Analysis: “Holler”
“Early in the Mornin’” 
Slaves and Christianity 
Minstrelsy 
Music Analysis: “I’ll Meet You On That Shore” 
The Blues 
The 12-Bar Blues Form 
Blues Notes and the Blues Scale 
Blues Poetry 
Country Blues 
The Mississippi Delta 
Early Delta Blues Musicians 
Music Analysis: “Cross Road Blues” 
Texas Blues 
Ragtime 
Scott Joplin (1868–1917) Piano/Composer 
Music Analysis: “Maple Leaf 27
Study Questions 

Chapter 3 Jazz Takes Root
Introduction 
History of New Orleans 
The Crescent City 
Musical Tradition in New Orleans 
Brass Bands 
Funerals 
Music Analysis: “Just a Closer Walk with Thee (Part I)”
“Just a Closer Walk with Thee (Part II)” 
New Orleans Ethnic Mix 
Creoles of Color 
African Americans 
Separate but Equal 
Storyville 
The Birth of Jazz 
The Earliest Jazz Bands and Musicians 
The Cornet Kings of New Orleans 
Charles “Buddy” Bolden (1877–1931) 
Freddie Keppard (1889–1933) 
Joe “King” Oliver (1885–1938) 
Other Important New Orleans Jazz Musicians 
Music Analysis: “King Porter Stomp” 
Music Analysis: “Wild Cat Blues” 
The First Jazz Recording 
The ODJB and the NORK 
Music Analysis: “Livery Stable Blues” 
Stride Piano 
Important Stride Performers 
Music Analysis: “Tiger Rag” 
Boogie-Woogie 
Study Questions 

Chapter 4 The Jazz Age 
Introduction 
Chicago 
The Great Migration 
The Black Belt 
The Chicago Club Scene 
Recording in Chicago 
Music Analysis: “Dippermouth Blues” 
Louis Armstrong (1901–1971)
Cornet/Trumpet/Vocal/Bandleader 
The First Virtuoso 
Music Analysis: “Black Bottom Stomp” 
The Hot Five and Hot Seven 
Armstrong’s Trumpet and Vocal Style 
Music Analysis: “West End Blues” 
“Fatha” 
Music Analysis: “Weather Bird” 
Armstrong’s Later Career 
White Chicago 
The Austin High Gang 
The Chicago Style 
Bix Beiderbecke (1903–1931)
Cornet/Piano/Composer 
The First White Innovator 
Music Analysis: “Singin’ the Blues” 
Tram 
The Demise of the Chicago Scene 
Classic Blues 
The Blues as Popular Music 
Race Records 
The Empress of the Blues 
Music Analysis: “Gimme a Pigfoot and a Bottle of Beer” 
Study Questions 

Chapter 5 New York and Kansas City 
Introduction 
New York City 
The Harlem Renaissance 
The New York Club Scene 
Dancing and the Dance Halls 
Tin Pan Alley 
The Music Business and the Birth of Radio 
The Earliest New York Bands 
Jazz in New York: 1920 
Birth of the Jazz Big Band 
Paul Whiteman (1890–1967)
Violin/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Rhapsody in Blue” 
Fletcher Henderson (1987–1952)
Piano/Composer/Arranger/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Hot ‘n’ Anxious” 
Duke Ellington Part I: 1899–1931 
Music Analysis: “Creole Love Call” 
Kansas City 
The Pendergast Machine 
The Kansas City Club Scene 
The Kansas City Jam Session 
The Kansas City Style 
Music Analysis: “One O’clock Jump” 
The Kansas City Bands and Musicians 
Territory Bands 
The Bands 
The Shouters 
The Demise of the Kansas City Scene 
Study Questions 

Chapter 6 The Swing Era 
Introduction 
Swing and Popular Culture 
Opening Night 
Cultural Aspects of Swing 
The Sound of Changing America 
The Swing Band 
Important Orchestras of the Swing Era: Goodman, Ellington, and Basie 
Benny Goodman (1909–1986)
Clarinet/Bandleader 
Meeting John Hammond 
Music Analysis: “King Porter Stomp” 
The Small Groups 
Music Analysis: “Good Enough to Keep” 
The King of Swing 
Duke Ellington Part II: 1931–1974 
Music Analysis: “Black, Brown, and Beige, Part I” 
Music Analysis: “Take the ‘A’ Train” 
William “Count” Basie (1904–1984)
Piano/Bandleader 
Other Important Swing Era Bandleaders 
Chick Webb (1909–1939)
Drummer/Bandleader 
Jimmie Lunceford (1902–1947)
Bandleader 
Cab Calloway (1907–1994)
Singer/Bandleader 
Artie Shaw (1910–2004)
Clarinet/Bandleader 
Charlie Barnet (1913–1991)
Saxophones/Bandleader 
Other Important Swing-Era Jazz Stars 
The Tenor Titans: Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young 
Music Analysis: “Body and Soul” 
Billie Holliday (1915–1959) Vocal 
Music Analysis: “Strange Fruit” 
Other Swing-Era Musicians 
The End of the Swing Era 
Study Questions 

Chapter 7 The Bebop Revolution 
Introduction 
Winds of Change 
The Critical Moment 
The New Breed of Jazz Musician 
The Bebop Counter-Culture 
Minton’s, Clark Monroe’s, and “The Street” 
Music Analysis: “Swing to Bop” 
New Sounds 
Diz, Bird, and Monk 
Charlie Parker (1920–1955)
Alto Sax/Composer 
Music Analysis: “Koko” 
John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917–1993)
Trumpet/Composer/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Manteca” 
Thelonious Sphere Monk (1917–1982)
Piano/Composer 
Music Analysis: “Rhythm-A-Ning” 
Other Important Bebop Figures 
Bud Powell (1924–1966) Piano/Composer 
Kenny Clarke (1914–1985) Drums 
Charlie Christian (1916–1942)
Electric Guitar 
Max Roach (1924-2007)
Drums/Composer/Bandleader 
Dexter Gordon (1923–1990) Tenor Sax 
Theodore “Fats” Navarro (1923–1950)
Trumpet 
Tadd Dameron (1917–1965)
Piano/Composer/Arranger 
Oscar Peterson (1925–2007) Piano 
J. J. Johnson (1924–2001) Trombone 
Reaction to Bebop and Later Developments 
The New Orleans Revival 
Modern Big Bands from the 1940s 
Music Analysis: “Four Brothers” 
Vocalists 
Music Analysis: “Lemon Drop” 
The Demise of 52nd Street 
Study Questions 

Chapter 8 Fragmentation 
Introduction 
Cool Jazz 
The Birth of the Cool 
The Modern Jazz Quartet 
Music Analysis: “Boplicity” 
Lennie Tristano (1919–1978)
Piano/Composer 
The West Coast Scene 
Los Angeles and the Central Avenue Scene 
Important West Coast Cool Musicians 
Music Analysis: “Corcovado (Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars)” 
Hard Bop 
The Black Reaction 
Important Hard Bop Musicians 
Music Analysis: “Moanin’” 
Music Analysis: “Boogie Stop Shuffle” 
Other Jazz Styles from the 1950s 
Soul Jazz 
Third Stream 
Modal Jazz 
Music Analysis: “All About Rosie” (1st part) 
The Piano Trio 
Music Analysis: “Milestones” 
Miles Davis Part I: 1926–1959 
Chasing Bird and Diz 
Miles’ Style 
The First Quintet 
Kind of Blue 
Music Analysis: “So What” 
Study Questions 

Chapter 9 The 1960s, 1970s and Beyond 
Introduction 
Free Jazz 
Rebellion 
Breaking Rules 
Playing Outside 
Important Free Jazz Musicians 
Ornette Coleman (1930–) Alto Sax/Trumpet/Composer/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Lonely Woman” 
Cecil Taylor (1929–)
Piano/Composer/Bandleader 
Eric Dolphy (1928–1964) Alto Sax/Bass Clarinet/Flute/Composer 
Free Jazz in the 1960s 
Miles Davis Part II: 1959–1991 
The Second Quintet 
“Bitches Brew” 
Music Analysis: “Footprints” 
Music Analysis: “Bitches Brew” 
The Miles Davis Legacy 
John Coltrane (1926–1967) Tenor/Soprano Saxophones/Composer 
The Angry Young Tenor 
Sheets of Sound 
A Love Supreme 
Music Analysis: “Acknowledgement” 
The Coltrane Legacy 
Other Important Jazz Artists in the 1970s 
Keith Jarrett (1945–) Piano/Soprano Sax/Composer/Bandleader 
Freddie Hubbard (1938–2008) Trumpet/Composer/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Suite Sioux” 
Jazz/Rock Fusion 
Important First-Generation Fusion Bands/Performers 
Music Analysis: “Watermelon Man” 
Music Analysis: “Birdland” 
Study Questions 

Chapter 10 A New Paradigm: Jazz in the 1980s and 1990s 
Introduction 
Wynton Marsalis (1961–) Trumpet/Composer/Bandleader/Educator 
Music Analysis: “The Majestyof the Blues (The Puheeman Strut)” 
The Neo-Traditional Movement 
Fusion Evolves in the 1980s 
Pat Metheny (1954–) Guitar/Guitar Synthesizer/Composer/Bandleader 
Music Analysis: “Last Train Home” 
Michael Brecker (1949–2007)
Tenor Saxophone/EWI/Composer 
Music Analysis: “Itsbynne Reel” 
The New York Downtown Scene 
Important Downtown Performers 
John Zorn (1953–)
Alto Sax/Composer/Producer 
Bill Frisell (1951–) Guitar/Composer 
Dave Douglas (1963–)
Trumpet/Composer/Producer 
Urban Jazz Styles 
Music Analysis: “Shards” 
Music Analysis: “Entruption” 
Continuing the Big Band Tradition 
Music Analysis: “Central Park North” 
Other Developments in Jazz From the 1980s and 1990s 
Jazz Education 
Women in Jazz 
Other Important Jazz Musicians From the 1980s and 1990s 
Music Analysis: “Artistiya” 
Study Questions 

Chapter 11 Jazz in the New Millennium 
At the Millennium: the Death of Jazz 
Ken Burns to the Rescue 
City of Glass 
Important Jazz Musicians in the 21st Century 
Esperanza Spalding (1984–)
Bass/Vocals/Composer 
Music Analysis: “Endangered Species” 
Jacob Collier (1994–)
Vocalist/Multi-Instrumentalist/Composer/Arranger/Producer 
The Pianists: Mehldau, Iverson, Iyer and Moran 
Music Analysis: “Exit Music (For a Film)” 
The Guitarists: Monder, Rosenwinkel and Stryker 
Music Analysis: “Echolalia” 
The Norah Effect 
Is It Jazz, Or Is It Pop? 
Beyond Norah: Karrin and Kurt 
Music Analysis: “Downtown” 
Speaking of Pop/Jazz ... 
Jazz+Technology 
A New Guy in the Band 
Turntablists, DJs and Laptops 
Music Analysis: “west_coast_variant” 
Globalization: Outsourcing Jazz 
The World is Flat 
Scandinavian Jazz: Dangerous Art 
Music Analysis: “Elevation of Love” 
Future Jazz 
The Challenges Ahead 
Old School/New School 
Beyond the Big Apple/The Promise of the Future 
Study Questions 

Jazz Performance Review Sheets 

References 

Glossary 

Key Terms, Songs, and Music Styles Index 

Key Figures and Key Places

Index

Thomas E Larson

Tom Larson is Assistant Professor of Composition (Emerging Media and Digital Arts) at the Glenn Korff School of Music at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. In addition to authoring The History of Rock and Roll, he is also the author of Modern Sounds: The Artistry of Contemporary Jazz, and The History and Tradition of Jazz, both published by Kendall Hunt Publishing. His first CD of original jazz compositions, Flashback, was released in 2003. He has studied jazz piano with Dean Earle, Fred Hersch, Bruce Barth, and Kenny Werner, jazz arranging with Herb Pomeroy and music composition with Robert Beadell and Randall Snyder. In addition to performing with jazz ensembles throughout the Midwest and East Coast, he has performed with Paul Shaffer, Victor Lewis, Dave Stryker, Bobby Shew, Claude Williams, Bo Diddley, Jackie Allen, the Omaha Symphony, the Nebraska Chamber Orchestra, the Nebraska Jazz Orchestra, and the University of Nebraska Faculty Jazz Ensemble.

 Tom also writes and produces music for documentary films; among his credits are the scores for three documentaries for the PBS American Experience series (a production of WGBH-TV, Boston): In the White Man’s Image, Around the World in 72 Days, and Monkey Trial. He also scored the documentaries Willa Cather: The Road Is All for WNET-TV (New York), Ashes from the Dust for the PBS series NOVA, and the PBS specials Most Honorable Son and In Search of the Oregon Trail. Tom has written extensively for the Nebraska Educational Telecommunications, South Dakota Public Broadcasting, and the University of Illinois Asian Studies Department. His music has also been used on the CBS-TV series The District. His commercial credits include music written for Phoenix-based Music Oasis, L.A.-based Music Animals, Chicago-based Pfeifer Music Partners and General Learning Communications, and advertising agencies in Nebraska.

 A Lincoln native, Tom received a Bachelor of Music in Composition in 1977 from Berklee College of Music in Boston and a Master of Music in Composition

in 1985 from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is also an avid runner, and completed the Boston Marathon in 2005, 2006, and 2007. More information on Tom Larson can be found at tomlarsonmusic.net.

 

 

I've been using Thomas Larsons' History and Tradition of Jazz for several years. After using and looking through other texts I settled on Larson's mainly because it balances the history of jazz through socio-economic issues and musical styles.
Mitch Paliga | Senior Lecturer
Lake Forest College

"History and Tradition of Jazz is a great way to introduce new students to the richness of jazz, as well as provide deep insight to those with past experience studying this art-form. The musical examples are excellent, and the highly visual style of the book makes it easier for students to learn the key concepts of each chapter.”
David Camwell, Simpson College

"History and Tradition of Jazz is an excellent introduction to the world of jazz.  It is both academically robust and user friendly."
Jeremy Brown, Mt. San Jacinto College

"I have found History and Tradition of Jazz to be rewarding for both myself and my students.  It is concise and direct and covers the material in a very straightforward manner.  Larson covers the high points of jazz, the individuals that created it, and those that moved it forward, and into a new realm.” 
Thomas Kittinger, Harrisburg Area Community College

"History and Tradition of Jazz is a great way to introduce new students to the richness of jazz, as well as provide deep insight to those with past experience studying this art-form. The musical examples are excellent, and the highly visual style of the book makes it easier for students to learn the key concepts of each chapter.”
David Camwell, Simpson College

"History and Tradition of Jazz is an excellent introduction to the world of jazz.  It is both academically robust and user friendly."
Jeremy Brown, Mt. San Jacinto College

"I have found History and Tradition of Jazz to be rewarding for both myself and my students.  It is concise and direct and covers the material in a very straightforward manner.  Larson covers the high points of jazz, the individuals that created it, and those that moved it forward, and into a new realm.” 
Thomas Kittinger, Harrisburg Area Community College

Related ISBN's: 9781524948634, 9781524952655

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