# Introduction to Analog & Digital Circuits

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** The Introduction to Analog and Digital Circuits** book is written for students who are interested in learning the fundamental elements of electrical circuits from an engineering perspective.

The book is divided in two main sections: digital circuits (6 chapters) and analog circuits (6 chapters). The digital section covers the basics of binary arithmetic and Boolean Algebra, combinational and synchronous sequential hardware design, as well as implementation on modern programmable devices. The analog section covers fundamental electrical concepts (DC, AC, linear circuit analysis), as well as more applied concepts such as operational amplifiers instrumentation and measurement.

To strengthen the conceptual understanding of the topics, each chapter includes an extensive and varied set of exercises and examples: worked problems, practice exercises, a workbook section for students to directly complete during lectures, as well as a list of problems at the end of each chapter.

Each chapter in this textbook is designed to allow students to easily absorb basic concepts in circuits. This textbook is meant to be used as a gateway reference providing basic knowledge about concepts in digital and analog circuits. Students will be able to build upon these basic concepts to deepen their knowledge about circuits and feel confident in moving forward to more advanced concepts in this field.

Introduction

**Chapter 1 Binary Numbers and Other Number Systems**

1.1 Base 10 (Decimal)

1.2 Base 2 (Binary)

1.3 Other Bases

1.4 Hexadecimal Representation

1.5 Signed Integer Numbers

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 2 Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates, and Truth Tables**

2.1 Boolean Algebra

2.2 Switching Circuits and Boolean Algebra

2.3 Logic Gates

2.4 Canonical Forms: Sum of Products (SOP) and Product of Sums (POS)

2.5 Some Aspects of Digital Logic Design

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 3 Simplification of Logic Functions**

3.1 Venn Diagrams

3.2 Karnaugh Maps

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 4 Digital Implementation Technology**

4.1 Practical Aspects

4.2 Implementation of Logic Gates

4.3 Integrated Circuits

4.4 7400-Series Integrated Circuits

4.5 Programmable Logic Devices

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 5 Combinational Logic Circuits**

5.1 Multiplexors

5.2 Decoders and Encoders

5.3 Addition and Subtraction

5.4 Comparators

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 6 Sequential Logic Circuits**

6.1 Asynchronous Sequential Circuits: Latches

6.2 Synchronous Sequential Circuits: Flip Flops

6.3 Synchronous Sequential Circuits: Registers

6.4 Synchronous Counters

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 7 Fundamental Analog Circuit Concepts**

7.1 Voltage, Current, Energy, and Power

7.2 Parts of a Circuit—Symbols, Branches, Nodes, and Loops

7.3 Fundamental Laws—Kirchhoff’s Current Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Ohm’s Law

7.4 Circuit Components—Sources and Passive Elements

7.5 Connecting Components—Series, Parallel, Wye, and Delta

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 8 Introduction to Phasors for Analyzing AC Circuits**

8.1 Sinusoids

8.2 Euler’s Formula and the Complex Plane

8.3 Phasors, Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis

8.4 Root-Mean-Square Values

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 9 Analysis and Applications of Simple Circuits**

9.1 Divider Circuits

9.2 Application of Simple Circuits—Bridge Circuits and Transducers

9.3 Application of Simple Circuits—Passive Filters

9.4 Source of Error and Introduction to Uncertainty in Design and Measurement

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 10 Linear Circuit Analysis Techniques**

10.1 Node Voltages and Loop Currents

10.2 Nodal Analysis

10.3 Nodal Analysis—Handling Voltage Sources

10.4 Mesh Analysis

10.5 Mesh Analysis—Handling Current Sources

10.6 Simplified Mesh and Nodal Analysis

10.7 Dependent Sources in Mesh and Nodal Analysis

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 11 Ideal Operational Amplifiers**

11.1 Operational Amplifiers, Gain, and Feedback

11.2 Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Operational Amplifiers

11.3 Common Operational Amplifier Topologies

11.4 Active Filters

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 12 Linear Circuit Theorems**

12.1 Source Transformation

12.2 Superposition

12.3 Equivalent Circuits

12.4 Maximum Power Transfer

Workbook Problems

Problems

Appendix Complex Numbers and Matrix Computations

**Brian Dean**

Brian K. Dean received the B.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering and the M.S.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wyoming in 2006, 2008, and 2012, respectively. He is an Associate Professor and Academic Program Coordinator for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oakland University. He teaches courses in circuits, bioinstrumentation, and instrumentation and measurement. His research interests include biomimetics (specifically mimicking fly vision), digital signal and image processing, biomedical instrumentation, and autonomous robotics.

**Daniel Llamocca**

Daniel Llamocca received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, in 2002, and the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and the Ph.D. degree in computer engineering from the University of New Mexico at Albuquerque, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with Oakland University. His research deals with run-time automatic adaptation of hardware resources to time varying constraints with the purpose of delivering the best hardware solution at any time. His current research interests include reconfigurable computer architectures for signal, image, and video processing, high-performance architectures for computer arithmetic, communication, and embedded interfaces, embedded system design, and run-time partial reconfiguration techniques on field-programmable gate arrays.

** The Introduction to Analog and Digital Circuits** book is written for students who are interested in learning the fundamental elements of electrical circuits from an engineering perspective.

The book is divided in two main sections: digital circuits (6 chapters) and analog circuits (6 chapters). The digital section covers the basics of binary arithmetic and Boolean Algebra, combinational and synchronous sequential hardware design, as well as implementation on modern programmable devices. The analog section covers fundamental electrical concepts (DC, AC, linear circuit analysis), as well as more applied concepts such as operational amplifiers instrumentation and measurement.

To strengthen the conceptual understanding of the topics, each chapter includes an extensive and varied set of exercises and examples: worked problems, practice exercises, a workbook section for students to directly complete during lectures, as well as a list of problems at the end of each chapter.

Each chapter in this textbook is designed to allow students to easily absorb basic concepts in circuits. This textbook is meant to be used as a gateway reference providing basic knowledge about concepts in digital and analog circuits. Students will be able to build upon these basic concepts to deepen their knowledge about circuits and feel confident in moving forward to more advanced concepts in this field.

Introduction

**Chapter 1 Binary Numbers and Other Number Systems**

1.1 Base 10 (Decimal)

1.2 Base 2 (Binary)

1.3 Other Bases

1.4 Hexadecimal Representation

1.5 Signed Integer Numbers

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 2 Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates, and Truth Tables**

2.1 Boolean Algebra

2.2 Switching Circuits and Boolean Algebra

2.3 Logic Gates

2.4 Canonical Forms: Sum of Products (SOP) and Product of Sums (POS)

2.5 Some Aspects of Digital Logic Design

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 3 Simplification of Logic Functions**

3.1 Venn Diagrams

3.2 Karnaugh Maps

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 4 Digital Implementation Technology**

4.1 Practical Aspects

4.2 Implementation of Logic Gates

4.3 Integrated Circuits

4.4 7400-Series Integrated Circuits

4.5 Programmable Logic Devices

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 5 Combinational Logic Circuits**

5.1 Multiplexors

5.2 Decoders and Encoders

5.3 Addition and Subtraction

5.4 Comparators

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 6 Sequential Logic Circuits**

6.1 Asynchronous Sequential Circuits: Latches

6.2 Synchronous Sequential Circuits: Flip Flops

6.3 Synchronous Sequential Circuits: Registers

6.4 Synchronous Counters

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 7 Fundamental Analog Circuit Concepts**

7.1 Voltage, Current, Energy, and Power

7.2 Parts of a Circuit—Symbols, Branches, Nodes, and Loops

7.3 Fundamental Laws—Kirchhoff’s Current Law, Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, Ohm’s Law

7.4 Circuit Components—Sources and Passive Elements

7.5 Connecting Components—Series, Parallel, Wye, and Delta

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 8 Introduction to Phasors for Analyzing AC Circuits**

8.1 Sinusoids

8.2 Euler’s Formula and the Complex Plane

8.3 Phasors, Impedance, and AC Circuit Analysis

8.4 Root-Mean-Square Values

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 9 Analysis and Applications of Simple Circuits**

9.1 Divider Circuits

9.2 Application of Simple Circuits—Bridge Circuits and Transducers

9.3 Application of Simple Circuits—Passive Filters

9.4 Source of Error and Introduction to Uncertainty in Design and Measurement

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 10 Linear Circuit Analysis Techniques**

10.1 Node Voltages and Loop Currents

10.2 Nodal Analysis

10.3 Nodal Analysis—Handling Voltage Sources

10.4 Mesh Analysis

10.5 Mesh Analysis—Handling Current Sources

10.6 Simplified Mesh and Nodal Analysis

10.7 Dependent Sources in Mesh and Nodal Analysis

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 11 Ideal Operational Amplifiers**

11.1 Operational Amplifiers, Gain, and Feedback

11.2 Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Operational Amplifiers

11.3 Common Operational Amplifier Topologies

11.4 Active Filters

Workbook Problems

Problems

**Chapter 12 Linear Circuit Theorems**

12.1 Source Transformation

12.2 Superposition

12.3 Equivalent Circuits

12.4 Maximum Power Transfer

Workbook Problems

Problems

Appendix Complex Numbers and Matrix Computations

**Brian Dean**

Brian K. Dean received the B.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering and the M.S.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wyoming in 2006, 2008, and 2012, respectively. He is an Associate Professor and Academic Program Coordinator for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oakland University. He teaches courses in circuits, bioinstrumentation, and instrumentation and measurement. His research interests include biomimetics (specifically mimicking fly vision), digital signal and image processing, biomedical instrumentation, and autonomous robotics.

**Daniel Llamocca**

Daniel Llamocca received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, in 2002, and the M.Sc. degree in electrical engineering and the Ph.D. degree in computer engineering from the University of New Mexico at Albuquerque, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor with Oakland University. His research deals with run-time automatic adaptation of hardware resources to time varying constraints with the purpose of delivering the best hardware solution at any time. His current research interests include reconfigurable computer architectures for signal, image, and video processing, high-performance architectures for computer arithmetic, communication, and embedded interfaces, embedded system design, and run-time partial reconfiguration techniques on field-programmable gate arrays.