Chapter 1 **Voting Methods **

1.1 **Plurality and Runoff Methods **

Runoff Elections

Preference Rankings

1.2 **Borda’s Method: A Scoring System **

1.3 **Head-to-Head Comparisons **

Single-Peaked Preference Rankings

1.4 **Approval Voting **

1.5 **The Search for an Ideal Voting System **

**Writing Exercises **

**Projects **

**Key Terms **

**Suggested Readings **

Chapter 2 **Apportionment: Sharing What**

**Cannot Be Divided Arbitrarily**

2.1 **Quota Methods **

Hamilton’s Method

Lowndes’ Method

2.2 **Early Divisor Methods **

Jefferson’s Method

Webster’s Method

2.3 **Apportionment in Today’s House of Representatives **

The Hill–Huntington Method

Other Apportionment Methods

2.4 **The Search for an Ideal Apportionment Method **

**Writing Exercises **

**Projects **

**Key Terms **

**Review Test**

**Suggested Readings **

Chapter 3 **INTRODUCTION **

3.1 **Overview of Course (Basic Concepts) **

Population

Sample

Random Sample

Internal and External Validity

3.2 **Why We Sample **

Sampling to Determine μ

Sampling to Determine *P *

**Excel Excitement **

**Summary **

**Exercises **

Chapter 4 **ORGANIZING AND ANALY ZING DATA **

4.1 **Graphical Representations **

Histogram

Population Histograms

Frequency Polygon

Circle Graph

4.2 **Measures of Central Tendency (Ungrouped Data) **

Arithmetic Mean

Median

Mode

Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode

4.3 **Measures of Dispersion or Spread (Ungrouped Data) **

Range

Standard Deviation

4.4 **Estimating Population Characteristics **

4.5 **Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion/Spread**

**(Grouped Data) **

Mean

Standard Deviation

Modal Class

4.6 *z ***Scores and the Use of the Standard Deviation **

Two Important Findings

4.7 **Additional Descriptive Topics **

Pictogram

Stem-and-Leaf Display

Box-and-Whisker Plot

Quartiles

Percentiles

4.8 **Writing Research Reports **

Background Statement

Design and Procedures of the Study

Results

Analysis and Discussion

Conclusions and Recommendations

**Excel Excitement **

**Summary **

**Exercises **

**Research Reports **

Chapter 5 **Probability **

5.1 **Probability Defined: Empirically **

Subjective Probability

5.2 **Probability Defined: Classically **

Two Fundamental Properties

And and OR Statements

Practice Exercises

Use of Mathematical Formulas in Simple Experiments

5.3 **More Complex Experiments: Tree Diagram **

5.4 **More Complex Experiments: Multiplication Rules **

Dependent and Independent Events

Counting Principle

5.5 **Early Gambling Experiments Leading to Discovery of the**

**Normal Curve **

5.6 **Additional Probability Topics **

Mean and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Probability Distribution

Expected Value

Permutations and Combinations

**Summary **

**Exercises**

Chapter 6 **Normal Distribution **

6.0 **Origins of the Concept **

6.1 **Idealized Normal Curve **

Characteristics of the Normal Curve

Use of the Normal Curve Table

6.2 **Applications: Idealized Normal Curve **

6.3 **Working Backward with the Normal Curve Table **

Applications

6.4 **Binomial Distribution: An Introduction to Sampling **

Sampling from a Two-Category Population

Normal Curve Approximation to the Binomial Sampling Distribution

Terminology

6.5 **Binomial Sampling Distribution: Applications **

*Importance of Random Selection*

*Importance of a Large Population*

**Excel Excitement**

**Summary**

**Exercises**

**Endnotes**

Chapter 7 **CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM **

7.1 **Central Limit Theorem**

7.2 **Applying the Central Limit Theorem**

Random Selection

7.3 **How ***n ***and **σ **Affect **s*x*

How σ Affects s*x*

How *n *Affects s*x*

7.4 **Central Limit Theorem Applied to Nonnormal Populations**

**Excel Excitement**

**Summary**

**Excel**

**Exercises**

**Endnotes**

**Answer key**

**Index**