Introduction to Water Resources
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Next to air, water is the most important natural resource present on Earth, and it is present in every living thing. It is time to treat this precious resource with the respect it truly deserves! Its sustainable use is more necessary than ever to satisfy essential needs of the growing world population.
Introduction to Water Resources is truly an introductory textbook on water that exposes beginners to all aspects of water: its perpetual existence due to unique properties; how it cycles through the Earth; its availability in three different forms; how humans have utilized it for their survival and development; its quality; and laws and regulations surrounding its use.
Introduction to Water Resources summarizes the processes of treatment before its distribution to the public and the processes needed to safely discharge wastewater back to the environment. It also emphasizes on “How important is to consider water as an economic good and conserve it for future generations?” The textbook introduces readers to the different applications of water and the unique role water plays at present, and would play in the future for meeting the ever-increasing demands for food, energy, and clean environment.
Introduction to Water Resources provides a strong basis for learning all aspects of water and its applications in today’s society.
Available in print and eBook versions, Introduction to Water Resources includes:
- Descriptive models regarding how water was used for work in the past civilizations.
- Review Questions at the end of each chapter to assess comprehension of the concepts.
- Tests the National Weather Service use to observe the different rates of water properties.
- Chapter summaries to help readers prepare for exams and reinforce concepts.
The second edition includes:
- Case studies on current and emerging issues in water to reinforce students’ understanding of the topics and inspire them through illustration of actual events.
- Web-links to real time water resources data for the readers to surf through their own watersheds and understand the role it plays in their own communities.
- Simple problem solving scenarios at the end of each chapter to reinforce their ability to apply their knowledge of water to practice in real life and in careers they would choose.
About the Authors
Chapter 1 The Role of Water in Early Civilizations
The Indus Valley
The Other Civilizations
The Scientific Methods
Chapter 2 Properties of Water and Fundamentals of the Hydrologic Cycle
The Hydrogen Bond
Properties of Water
The Hydrologic Cycle
Chapter 3 Evaporation and Transpiration
Evapotranspiration and Water Supply
Case Study on Evapotranspiration
Chapter 4 Condensation
The Process of Condensation
The Formation of Clouds and Fog
Measurement of Condensation
Applications of Condensation
The Importance of Condensation
Chapter 5 Precipitation
The Process of Precipitation
Forms of Precipitation
Variations in Precipitation
Precipitation Data Analysis
Interception by Vegetation
The Usefulness of Precipitation Data
The Impact of Global Climate Changes on Precipitation
Chapter 6 Infiltration and Soil Water
Soil in the Earth’s Subsurface and Its Zones
The Importance of Infiltration
Chapter 7 Surface Water
Surface Runoff and the Runoff Cycle
The Factors Affecting Runoff
Measurement of Runoff
Case Study: Catastrophic Flooding from Hurricanes Harvey and Irma of 2017 in Southern USA
Surface Water Bodies
Chapter 8 Groundwater
The Geology of Aquifers
The Hydrology of Aquifers
Case Study: Hydrogeology of the High Plains Aquifer
Accessing Groundwater Using Wells
Uses of Groundwater
Study of Local Groundwater Resources in Your Area
Chapter 9 Water Quality
Basic Characteristics of Natural Water
The Distribution of Salts in Water Bodies
Contaminants in Water, their Toxicities, and Associated Health Effects
Natural Water as the Source for Minerals
Chapter 10 Multiple Applications of Water
Fish and Wildlife
Chapter 11 Water Supply and Treatment
Municipal Water Supply Systems
Federal Protection of Drinking Water
Chapter 12 Wastewater Treatment
Characteristics of Wastewater
Transportation of Wastewater to the Treatment Plant
The Wastewater Treatment Process
Combined Sewer Overflow: A Threat to Water Quality
Project Clean Lake: A Case Study on LTCP for CSOs in Cleveland, OH
Handling of Wastewater Sludge
Modern Wastewater Treatment
Septic Tanks and Leach Fields
The Future of Wastewater Treatment
Chapter 13 Water Law
The Riparian Doctrine
The Prior Appropriation Doctrine
Federal Water Rights
Indian Water Rights
Transboundary Water Management
Chapter 14 Federal Legislations
The Organizational Structure
Federal Agencies Involved in Water Legislations
The Effects of Environmental Regulations in Water
Types of Water Resources and Regulations Governing Their Use
Chapter 15 Benefit–Cost Analysis
Time Value of Money
Sensitivity Analysis of Public Water Projects
Cost Allocation and Cost Sharing
Case Study of Using BCA Method in the Selection of Water Projects
Chapter 16 Water Conflicts
The Reasons for Water Conflict
The Tragedy of the Commons
Potential for Water Conflicts
International Water Conflicts
Internal Water Conflicts
Resolution of Conflicts
Chapter 17 Economics of Water
Supply and Demand
The Value of Water
Privatization of Water
Water Use Efficiency
Competing Water Uses
Future Water Problems and Solutions
Chapter 18 The Future of Water Resources
Efficiency of Water Uses
Water–Energy–Food (WEF) Nexus
Status of Water Infrastructure
The Institutional Considerations
Sam L. Laki is currently Professor of Resource Economics in the Department of Water Resources Management, Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio, a position he held since 1999. He attained his Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture with honors in 1979 from the University of Khartoum, Sudan, his Master’s degree in 1981 from the University of Reading, England in 1981, and his Bachelor’s degree in Economics in 1991 from Michigan State University and his Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics from Michigan State University in 1992.
He served as an Agricultural economist in the planning Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sudan from 1979-1980 and 1981-1895. He served as an Agricultural Economist at Yambio Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan from 1983-1985.
In 1992, Sam Laki was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Water Resources Management at Central State University, He was appointed to Associate Professor in 1997 and Full Professor in 1999. At Central State University, Laki taught a variety of Resource Economics courses (Introduction to Water Resources, Water Resources Policy, Socioeconomics of Water Resources, Water and Environmental Law, Water Resources Economics, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Development, Principles of Economics). He was an adviser for many of the Department’s Water Resources Management majors. Laki taught two graduate courses (Agricultural Development and African Economic Development) Department of Economics, Ohio University, Athens Ohio 2002/2001. And Macroeconomics and Forecasting, Antioch University, Midwest, Springfield Ohio from 2000-2010.
His research was in the areas of Water Resources Management, Environmental Policy, Agricultural Economics and Economic Development. Many publications in scholarly journals resulted from those research efforts. His research is in both domestic and international scope. He won a Faculty excellence award for research in 2003.
Krishna Kumar V. Nedunuri is a Professor of Environmental Engineering in the Department of Water Resources management, Central State University, a position he held since 2009. He earned his B.S. in Chemical Engineering Technology from Andhra University, India in in 1990, an M.S. in Chemical Engineering Science from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India in in 1992, and Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering area of Civil Engineering from Purdue University in 1999.
Nedunuri was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Water Resources Management, Central State University in 1999. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 2004 and Full Professor in 2009. He was the academic department chair for over seven years during which time the Environmental Engineering program gained ABET accreditation for the first time in 2017. He is currently the Director for the International Center for Water Resources Management. He has been teaching several courses in both Water Resources and Environmental Engineering curricula. He brought innovations in undergraduate teaching by introducing inquiry based learning and problem based learning approaches. He uses experiential learning as a way of reinforcing concepts being taught in science and engineering classrooms. His efforts lead him to receive recognition through peer-reviewed journal publications. He is a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fellow at the Dayton Regional Center and a Scientific Teaching Fellow at the Summer Institutes organized by the National Science Foundation and Howards Hughes Medical Institute. Nedunuri has been teaching graduate courses in Clean Energy Engineering at Wright State University since 2010.
He served as PI/Co-PI in over 25 research and educations grants and authored/co-authored numerous publications and technical reports in water quality, modeling of soil and water physical/chemical processes, soil remediation and ecosystem restoration, and STEM education. He was a reviewer for the USDA NIFA AFRI Agroecosytem Management Grant Program. He has served as a reviewer to several engineering journals, and is a member of the State technical board for the Natural Resources and Conservation Service (NRCS), USDA, Ohio.
Ramanitharan Kandiah is a Professor of Environmental Engineering, Department of Water Resources Management, Central State University, a position he held since 2017. He obtained a Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering in 1990, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, sri lanka, a Master’s degree in Environmental and Water Resources Engineering in 1994, Hohai University, Nanjing, China, a Masters in Environmental Engineering in 1998, Marquette University, Wisconsin. Ph.D. in Civil Engineering in 2004, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, and a Graduate Certificate in Geographic Information Systems, 2006, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts.
Ramanitharan was appointed Assistant Professor in Environmental Engineering in 2008, promoted to Associate Professor in 2013, and to Full Professor in 2017. He is currently the Program Coordinator for the Department of water Resources Management. He was a Postdoctoral Associate in Northeastern University between 2004 and 2006. In addition to Water Resources Management courses, he has also taught Environmental Engineering courses. Ramanitharan’s current research areas are Evapotranspiration, Sustainability of Water Resources, Datamining Applications in Water Resources and History of water.
He is a registered Professional Engineer in Ohio, a Professional Hydrologist, and a Board Certified Environmental Engineer. He is a past chair of Demographics and Membership Committee of Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors and a National Society of Professional Engineers Mentors Task Committee member. He is currently a member of the Environmental Sustainability Committee of American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. He also contributes in various committees of EWRI, ASEE and ASCE-Dayton Chapter. He has also served as a reviewer for professional journals and funding agencies including National Science Foundation.