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Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World

Author(s): Cynthia Mckenney, Ursula K. Schuch, Amanda Chau

Edition: 2

Copyright: 2019

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As concerns for our environment have increased globally, the study of plants has evolved to address these issues.

The updated course content of the 2nd edition of Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World introduces students to some of the NEW cutting edge discoveries and updates in nomenclature. The expanded course content includes sample syllabi, an instructor’s manual, exams, quiz questions, and PowerPoint® presentations.

Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World introduces the reader to the dynamic world of plant science by providing the most up-to-date information and technology available. Written by authors with diverse plant science specialties and backgrounds, Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World addresses the entire gamut of plant science. The publication begins with the study of physiology and morphology of plants and then addresses the evolution, genetics, and classification.

Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World:

  • is organized thematically to highlight the diversity of the different plant systems while focusing on the plant functions which ultimately determines their unique positions in the web of life. 
  • enhances the learning process by including beautiful imagery in the text; the accompanying website features interactive exercises, links to additional articles, self-review questions, and an online glossary.
  • is available in an adaptive learning platform which allows each student to have a personal experience as they move through the material: https://he.kendallhunt.com/mckenney_adaptive  


Introductory Plant Science: Investigating the Green World is divided in to six units:

  1. Structure of the Green World – concentrates on the building blocks such as cells and tissues
  2. Reproduction in the Green World – introduces common methods of sexual and asexual reproduction
  3. Physiological Processes of the Green World – features photosynthesis and respiration along with plant responses to environmental conditions
  4. Origin and Organization of the Green World – an exploration of evolution and genetics as the driving forces behind the diversity of plant life
  5. Inhabitants of the Green World – a review of phylogeny and taxonomy give the platform for reviewing different classifications used for plants
  6. The Green World in the Web of Life – a rich exploration of biomes, ecosystems, and plant populations along with diverse uses found for plants

Preface

About the Book

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

Chapter 1 The Science of Plants

Learning Objectives

The Importance of Plants

Plant Domestication and Global Agriculture

Characteristics of Life

Living Organisms Have Cell(s) and Are Organized

Living Organisms Acquire Energy and Materials

Living Organisms Grow and Develop

Living Organisms Reproduce

Living Organisms Respond to Stimuli

Living Organisms Adapt to Their Environment

Diversity of Life

Classification of Living Organisms

Unique Characteristics of Plants

The Science of Plants

Disciplines of Plant Science

Scientific Processes

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section I Structure of the Green World

Chapter 2 Essential Molecules of Life

Learning Objectives

Water: The Main Component of Life

Water Is a Polar Molecule

Water Molecules Stick Together and to Other Polar Molecules

Water Is an Important Solvent

Water Provides Evaporative Cooling

Four Classes of Organic Molecules: The Foundations and Structures of Life

Carbohydrates Provide Fuel and Structure for Life

Nucleic Acids Make up the Blueprint of Life

Proteins Are the Substance of Life

Lipids Provide Fuel and Barrier for Life

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 3 Cells and Tissues

Learning Objectives

History of Cell Discovery

Scientists Who Discovered Cells

Development of the Cell Theory

Cells Are Tiny Units of Life

Smaller the Better

Observing Cells with Microscopes

Basic Cell Types

The Two Basic Types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Common Cell Structures and Functions

The Plasma Membrane: Selective Barrier

The Cytoplasm-Metabolic Center and Internal Transport

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Blueprint of Life

The Nucleus: Control Center

The Endoplasmic Reticulum–Biomolecule Factories

Dictyosomes or Golgi Apparatus: Packaging and Shipping Center

Vacuoles: Storage Facilities

Mitochondria: Energy Powerhouses

Ribosomes: Protein Factories

Plant Cell Structures and Functions

Chloroplasts: The Green Plastids That Make Food

Chromoplasts: Colorful Plastids That Add a Touch of Color to the Green World

Leucoplasts: Colorless Plastids That Store Stuffs

The Cell Wall: Support and Protection

Differences and Similarities between Plant and Animal Cells

Plant Tissue Systems and Functions

Ground Tissue System: The Storage and Support System

Vascular Tissue System: The Transport System

Dermal Tissue System: The Protective Covering

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 4 Roots

Learning Objectives

Root Function

Types of Root Systems

Specialized Roots

Roots for Stabilization

Roots for Extra Storage

Roots for Extra Anchorage

Root Structures

The Region of Cell Division

The Region of Cell Elongation

The Region of Maturation

Monocot and Eudicot Roots

Associations and Symbiotic Relationships

Association with Fungi

Association with Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 5 Stems

Learning Objectives

What Is a Stem?

Stem Functions

Structural Differences in Stem Development

Primary Growth

Organization of Vascular Tissues

Secondary Growth of Eudicots and Gymnosperms

Monocots Lack Secondary Growth

Stem Classification

Branch and Stem Components

Leaf Attachment

Specialized Stems

Bulbs

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 6 Leaves

Learning Objectives

Leaf Morphology

External Morphology

Internal Morphology

Leaf Functions

Processes

Water Retention

Plant Protection

Support

Pollination

Trapping Food

Identification and Classification

Leaf Complexity

Leaf Venation

Leaf Shape and Color

Response of Leaves to the Environment

Heat and Drought

Changing Seasons

Air Pollution

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section II Reproduction in the Green World

Chapter 7 Flowers and Sexual Reproduction

Learning Objectives

Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction

The Complete Flower

Sepals and Tepals

Petals

Stamens

Pistils

Flowers and Their Pollinators

Identification and Classification of Flowers

Symmetry

Corolla Types

Inflorescence Morphology

Constructing a Floral Formula

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 8 Fruits, Seeds, Dissemination, and Germination

Learning Objectives

Fruit Development and Structure

Fruit Development

Structural Components

Fruits and Their Seed Dispersal Mechanisms

Identification and Classification of Fruiting Structures

Propagation by Seed

Germination

Dormancy

Quiescence

Physiological Dormancy

Physical Dormancy

Double Dormancy

Seed Production and Storage

Seed Certification

Seed Preservation

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 9 Asexual Reproduction and Plant Propagation

Learning Objectives

Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction

Advantages of Asexual Propagation

Disadvantages of Asexual Propagation

Types of Asexual Propagation

Vegetative Cuttings

Grafting

Budding

Layering

Underground Plant Parts

Micropropagation

Apomixis

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section III Physiological Processes of the Green World

Chapter 10 Photosynthesis

Learning Objectives

The Role of Photosynthesis for Life on Earth

The Nature and Function of Light in Photosynthesis

Pigments and Their Role in Photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

Accessory Pigments

Chloroplasts and Photosystems

Photosystems

The Light Reactions and the Calvin–Benson Cycle

The Light Reactions

The Calvin–Benson Cycle

C Photosynthesis

Comparing the C and C Pathways

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

Environmental Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Light Intensity

Temperature

Carbon Dioxide

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 11 Respiration

Learning Objectives

Aerobic Respiration

Glycolysis

Pyruvate Conversion to Acetyl Coenzyme A

The TCA or Krebs Cycle

The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chemiosmosis and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Control of Respiration Through Feedback Mechanisms

Anaerobic Respiration

Respiration and Fresh Produce

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 12 Plant Responses to Hormonal and Environmental Stimuli

Learning Objectives

Signal Reception and Transduction

Plant Hormones

Auxin

Cytokinins

Gibberellins (GA)

Abscisic Acid

Ethylene

Brassinosteroids and Other Plant Hormones

Responses to Light

Blue Light

Red and Far-Red Light

Responses to Gravity

Responses to Mechanical Stimuli

Responses to Environmental Signals

Responses to Pathogens, Insects, and Herbivores

Hypersensitive Response

System-Acquired Resistance

Defenses against Herbivores

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 13 Soils, Plant Nutrition, and Transport in Plants

Learning Objectives

Soils

Soil Horizons

Soil Texture and Structure

Essential Elements for Plant Growth

Nutrient Deficiency

Nutrient Availability and Cation Exchange

Nutrient and Water Uptake

Movement of Molecules across Membranes

Passive Transport: Diffusion, Channels, and Carriers

Active Transport: Proton Pumps

Passive Ion Exclusion

Active Ion Exclusion

Nutrient Uptake through Leaves

Symbiotic Microorganisms Providing Nutrients

Water and Solute Transport in the Plant

Water Potential and Water Transport

Root Pressure

Capillary Action

The Cohesion-Tension Theory

Plant Water Uptake in Dry or Saline Soils

Translocation

The Pressure-Flow Hypothesis

Phloem Loading and Unloading

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section IV Continuity of the Green World

Chapter 14 Cell Cycle and Plant Life Cycle

Learning Objectives

Prokaryotic Cell Cycle

Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

Interphase: Preparation between Cell Division

Mitosis: Cell Division That Produces Growth

Cytokinesis: Physical Separation of Cells

Meiosis: Essential Cell Division for Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Generates Genetic Variation

Key Role of Cell Division in The Unique Life Cycle of Plants

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

Reference

Chapter 15 Patterns of Inheritance

Learning Objectives

Patterns of Inheritance

Mendelian Inheritance

One-Character Inheritance or Single-Factor Crosses

Two-Character Inheritance or Two-Factor Crosses

Mendel’s Principles of Inheritance

Complex Pattern of Inheritance

Importance and Impact of Plant Breeding

Traditional Breeding and Hybridization

Somatic Fusion and Tissue Culture

Genetic Modification or Engineering

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 16 Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Learning Objectives

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

DNA Structure and Organization

DNA Replication

Gene Expression

Mutations

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 17 Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Plants

Learning Objectives

Combining DNA from Different Sources with Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA into Fragments

DNA Ligases Glue DNA Fragments Together

Ways to Deliver Foreign DNA Molecules into Cells

Use of Reporter Genes to Identify Transformed Cells

Techniques for Genetic Modification of Plants

Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Transform Plant Cells

Using Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation Without Tissue Culture

Using Biolistics to Transform Plant Cells

Using Biolistics to Transform Plant Plastids

Genetically Modified Plants for Human Benefit

Genetically Modified (GM) Crops in the United States

GM Traits that Confer Tolerance to Herbicides

Stacking GM Traits

GM Traits that Confer Resistance to Insects

GM Traits that Confer Resistance to Viruses

GM Traits that Modified Product Quality

GM Traits that Confer Tolerance to Abiotic Stress

GM Traits that Produce Therapeutic Products

Benefits and Risks of Genetically Modified Plants

Increased Economic Benefits to Growers

Reduced Environmental Impacts from Pesticides

Enhanced Product Quality and Improved Post-Harvest Processing

Potential Health Risks

Potential Impact on Nontarget Organisms

Potential Contamination of Foreign Genes into Wild Species

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 18 Evolution

Learning Objectives

History of Evolution

Evolution by Natural Selection According to Darwin and Wallace

Evidence in Support of Evolution

Basis of Natural Selection

Genetic Composition and Evolution

The Hardy-Weinberg Law

Processes of Evolution

Mutation

Gene Flow

Genetic Drift

Nonrandom Mating

Natural Selection

Microevolution and Macroevolution

The Pace of Evolution

Adaptive Radiation

Convergent Evolution

Coevolution

Speciation

Reproductive Isolation

Allopatry

Sympatry

Rejoining of Isolated Populations

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section V Diversity of the Green World

Chapter 19 Phylogeny and Taxonomy

Learning Objectives

Classification Systems

Hierarchical Classification and Taxonomy

Binomial Nomenclature

Rules for Writing Scientific Names

How to Handle Hybrids

Systematics and Cladistics

Systematics

Cladistics

Domains

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

Chapter 20 Cyanobacteria and Algae

Learning Objectives

Characteristics of the Inhabitants of the Green World

Taking a Closer Look at Cyanobacteria

Differences in Body Forms and Structures

Differences in Cell Division

Different Types of Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria that Fix Nitrogen

Cyanobacteria Acting as Chloroplasts

The “Other” Cyanobacteria: Prochlorophytes

Taking a Closer Look at Algae

What Are Protists?

Different Types of Algae

Green Algae Are the Closest Relatives of Plants

Red Algae Are Close Relatives of Green Algae and Plants

Brown Algae Are the Giants of the Algal World

Diatoms Are Algae with Glass Shells

Dinofl agellates Are Troublemakers of the Algal World

Euglenoids Have Characteristics of Plants and Animals

Importance of Cyanobacteria and Algae to Humans

Important Phytoplankton

Toxic Blooms and Dead Zones

Biofuel Producers

Food and Industrial Products

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 21 The Plant Kingdom

Learning Objectives

Evolution of Land Plants (Embryophytes)

Major Plant Groups

Ancestors of Plants

Emergence and Diversifi cation of Land Plants

Characteristics of Land Plants (Kingdom Plantae)

Complex Polymers

Multicellular Structures

Unique Life Cycle Alternation of Generations

Associations with Mycorrhizal Fungi

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 22 Bryophytes

Learning Objectives

Evolutionary Relationships among Bryophytes

Characteristics of Bryophytes

Taking a Closer Look at Liverworts

The Gametophyte Generation

The Sporophyte Generation

Asexual Reproduction

Taking a Closer Look at Hornworts

The Gametophyte Generation

The Sporophyte Generation

Asexual Reproduction

Taking a Closer Look at Mosses

The Gametophyte Generation

The Sporophyte Generation

Asexual Reproduction

Importance of Bryophytes to Humans

Horticultural Uses

Household and Industrial Uses

Fuel Production

Medical Uses

Ecological Importance and Uses

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 23 Lycophytes and Ferns

Learning Objectives

Evolution of Vascular Plants (Eutracheophytes)

The Sporophyte Became Dominant

Emergence of Vascular Tissues, Stems, and Roots

Evolution of Leaves

Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants

Taking a Closer Look at Lycophytes

Taking a Closer Look at Ferns

Taking a Closer Look at Horsetails

Taking a Closer Look at Whisk Ferns

Importance of Seedless Vascular Plants to Humans

Horticultural and Agricultural Uses

Household and Industrial Uses

Food

Medical Uses

Coal Formation

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 24 Gymnosperms

Learning Objectives

Evolution of Seed Vascular Plants (Spermatophytes)

Sporangia Became Indehiscent

Gametophytes Became Dependent

Pollen Development

Seed Development

Sporophytes Became Woody

Characteristics of Gymnosperms

Evolutionary Relationships among Gymnosperms

Taking a Closer Look at Cycads and Their Uses

Taking a Closer Look at Ginkgo and Its Uses

Taking a Closer Look at Conifers and Their Uses

Taking a Closer Look at Gnetophytes and Their Uses

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 25 Angiosperms

Learning Objectives

Characteristics of Angiosperms

Flower Development

Evolutionary Trends among Flowers

Seed Development

Fruit Development

Evolutionary Relationships among Angiosperms

Basal Angiosperms

Core Angiosperms

Taking a Closer Look at Magnoliids and Their Importance

The Magnolia Family (Magnoliaceae)

Taking a Closer Look at Monocots and Their Importance

The Lily Family (Liliaceae)

The Orchid Family (Orchidaceae)

The Grass Family (Poaceae)

Taking a Closer Look at Eudicots and Their Importance

The Bean or Legume Family (Fabaceae)

The Rose Family (Rosaceae)

The Pumpkin Family (Cucurbitaceae)

The Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)

The Nightshade Family (Solanaceae)

The Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 26 Fungi: Friends or Foes of the Green World

Learning Objectives

Characteristics of Fungi

Evolutionary Relationships

Unique Cell Structure and Body Form

Unique Reproduction

Different Types of Fungi

Taking a Closer Look at Chytridiomycota

Taking a Closer Look at Glomeromycota

Taking a Closer Look at Ascomycota

Taking a Closer Look at Basidiomycota

Importance of Fungi to the Green World

Mycorrhizae: Partnerships between Fungi and Plant Roots

Endophytes: Partnerships between Fungi and Plants

Pathogens: Parasites of Plants

Lichens: Partnerships between Fungi and Algae or Cyanobacteria

Important Decomposers and Biogeochemical Transformers:

Recycling Nutrients for Plants

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Section VI The Green World in the Web of Life

Chapter 27 Ecosystems and Biomes

Learning Objectives

Global Climate Patterns

Biomes of the World

Arctic Tundra

Boreal Forest

Temperate Coniferous Forest

Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 28 Dynamics of Plant Communities and Populations

Learning Objectives

Levels of Ecological Studies

Interactions between Organisms

Mutualism

Commensalism

Competition

Parasitism or Predation

Population Ecology

Ecosystem Dynamics and Human Activity

Energy Flow in Ecosystems

The Food Chain and Food Web

Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Biogeochemical Cycles

The Carbon Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

Ecological Succession

Succession on Mount St. Helens Following a Volcanic Eruption

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Chapter 29 Plants as Food, Commercial Products, and Pharmaceuticals

Learning Objectives

History of Plant Domestication for Food and Other Uses

Food Plants Essential to Humans

Grasses: Maize, Rice, Wheat, and Other Grasses

Legumes

Potatoes, Cassava, Sweet Potatoes, and Other Starches

Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables

Plant Oils and Sugar

Commercial Products

Flavored and Fermented Beverages

Herbs and Spices

Paper, Cloth, and Wood

Medicinal Plants

Key Terms

Summary

Reflect

References

Glossary

Index

Cynthia Mckenney

Cynthia McKenney is the former Rockwell Professor of Horticulture in the Department of Plant and Soil Science at Texas Tech University. During her 35 years on faculty at Texas Tech, she taught numerous courses in horticulture, including principles of horticulture, arboriculture, plant propagation, greenhouse crop production, and both herbaceous and woody plants. Dr. McKenney has been very involved in distance education since the late 1990’s developing numerous undergraduate courses that included laboratory exercises, as well as, multiple graduate courses. She has also participated in a USDA grant to create a graduate course on global horticulture and human nutrition to enhance community resilience and food security. Ultimately, Dr. McKenney taught over 10 courses via interactive video conferencing, online instruction, and blended formats. This resulted in her having student in several different countries in Europe and Asia. Dr. McKenney’s experience in distance education has provided her skills to aid in the development of many of the on-line features for this textbook. In addition to teaching, she has conducted research on water-conserving landscapes, native plants, and alternative food production systems. Her environmental viewpoint has added an additional dimension to this introductory plant science textbook.

Ursula K. Schuch

Ursula Schuch is a professor in the School of Plant Sciences at the University of Arizona. Her educational background is in forestry and horticulture. She has taught horticulture classes including herbaceous plant materials and several plant production classes for temperate and tropical climates. Dr. Schuch has conducted research on the physiology of plants in many different climates. She is interested in understanding the tolerance of plants to environmental stresses such as drought, high and low temperatures, and salinity. Whether teaching plant physiology principles or production practices, she incorporates relevant examples students can relate to and improve their understanding of the subject matter.

Amanda Chau

Amanda Chau is a professor in the Division of Natural Science at Blinn College in Texas. She received her M.Sc. in forestry from University of Toronto and Ph.D. in biological sciences from Simon Fraser University. At Texas A&M University, she conducted her postdoctoral studies on manipulating fertilization as a management tactic against pest insects on greenhouse crops. She taught courses in entomology, horticultural and floricultural entomology, and principles of biological control. In 2007, Dr. Chau joined the faculty at Blinn College and has been teaching freshmen courses in biology and botany. Dr. Chau believes that we learn best as a community and strives to cultivate a learner-centered community with her students. She looks forward to exploring the fascinating world of plants with both her students and those who read this textbook.

Related ISBN's: 9781792420658, 9781792421938

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