# Investigating Biology: An Introduction to the Tools and Techniques of a Biologist: Volume I

**Author(s):**
Paul
Luyster

**Edition:
**
2

**Copyright:
**
2022

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**This is the lab manual for Biology I, the first semester of a two-semester General Biology course for science majors.**

There is so much more to biology than memorizing facts in a textbook. The fun part of biology is actually doing it! This laboratory course is designed to help you develop the hands-on skills of a biologist using the tools found in a typical, modern biology lab.

Each of the exercises in this manual begins with background information to help you understand a core concept of biology. You will then be presented with a question or problem related to that concept. The lab exercise will guide you as you use the scientific method, laboratory tools and standard protocols to answer that question or solve that problem. Throughout the course you will also evaluate scientific information, dig into primary research, use a lab notebook, collect and interpret quantitative data, and practice writing scientific reports.

As you work through this manual you will learn skills that you may use again in future classes, graduate school or in a professional setting. Your manual will become a portfolio of the skills you learn as well as a record of the protocols you master. You may find it valuable reference as you take advanced biology lab courses in the future.

*Introduction*

*Acknowledgments*

*About the Author *

**Lab 1 An Introduction to the Biology Laboratory**

*Lab Skill 1.1* Interpreting Lab Safety Symbols

*Lab Skill 1.2* Keeping a Lab Notebook

*Lab Skill 1.3* Measuring Liquids with Different Lab Equipment

*Lab Skill 1.4* Using a Micropipette

**Pre-Lab Quiz 1**

*Problem to Solve 1.1* Can I Use Scientific Reasoning to Solve a Puzzle?

*Problem to Solve 1.2* Can I Accurately Measure Liquids?

**Post-Lab Quiz 1**

**Lab 2 Using Chemistry in the Biology Lab**

*Lab Skill 2.1* Understanding the Names of Chemical Compounds

*Lab Skill 2.2 *Creating Solutions of Specific Concentration

*Lab Skill 2.3* Creating Dilutions of a Specific Volume

*Lab Skill 2.4* Measure Solute Concentration with a Hydrometer

*Lab Skill 2.5* Calculating pH from Molarity or Molarity from pH

**Pre-Lab Quiz 2**

*Problem to Solve 2.1* Can I Make 500 ml of a 0.9% Saline Solution?

*Problem to Solve 2.2* Can I Make Dilute Acid and Base Solutions?

**Post-Lab Quiz 2**

**Lab 3 Biochemistry: Chemical Compounds of Living Organisms**

*Lab Skill 3.1* Using Indicators to Determine the Presence of Specific Compounds

*Lab Skill 3.2* Managing Heat in the Laboratory

**Pre-Lab Quiz 3 **

*Problem to Solve 3.1* Can I Observe Enzymes Digesting Macromolecules?

**Post-Lab Quiz 3 **

**Lab 4 Molecular Biology I: Understanding and Isolating DNA **

*Lab Skill 4.1* Using a Benchtop Centrifuge

**Pre-Lab Quiz 4 **

*Problem to Solve 4.1* Can I Explain the Events of the Cell Cycle?

*Problem to Solve 4.2* Can I Synthesize a Peptide?

*Problem to Solve 4.3* Can I Collect and Isolate My DNA?

**Post-Lab Quiz 4**

**Lab 5 Microscopy: Observing Life at the Cellular Level**

*Lab Skill 5.1* Properly Using a Light Microscope

*Lab Skill 5.2* Calculating Magnification and Estimating Specimen Size

*Lab Skill 5.3* Using the Oil Immersion Lens

*Lab Skill 5.4* Making a Wet Mount Slide

**Pre-Lab Quiz 5**

*Problem to Solve 5.1* Can I Visually Identify Types of Cells?

*Problem to Solve 5.2* Can I Recognize the Phases of Mitosis?

*Problem to Solve 5.3* Can I Estimate the Size of One Human Cell?

**Post-Lab Quiz 5**

**Lab 6 Cell Biology I: Cellular Membranes and Structures**

*Lab Skill 6.1* Using Dialysis Tubing

*Lab Skill 6.2* Using (More) Chemical Indicators

**Pre-Lab Quiz**

*Problem to Solve 6.1* Can I Predict When Diffusion or Osmosis Will Occur?

*Problem to Solve 6.2* Can I Recognize the Effects of Hypotonic, Hypertonic, and Isotonic Solutions on Cells?

*Problem to Solve 6.3* Can I Design a Cell?

**Post-Lab Quiz 6**

**Lab 7 Molecular Biology II: Manipulating DNA**

*Lab Skill 7.1* Conducting DNA Gel Electrophoresis

*Lab Skill 7.2* Interpreting Electrophoresis Data

**Pre-Lab Quiz 7**

*Problem to Solve 7.1* Can I Predict Restriction Enzyme Recognition Sites?

*Problem to Solve 7.2* Can I Verify Restriction Enzyme Recognition Sites by DNA Electrophoresis?

*Problem to Solve 7.3* Can I Interpret DNA Fingerprint Data?

**Post-Lab Quiz 7**

**Lab 8 Cell Biology II: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration**

*Lab Skill 8.1* Separating Compounds Using Chromatography

*Lab Skill 8.2* Using a Spectrophotometer

**Pre-Lab Quiz 8**

*Problem to Solve 8.1* Can I Observe Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis in a Plant?

*Problem to Solve 8.2* Can I Observe Differences in Human CO2 Production?

*Problem to Solve 8.3* Can I Determine the Pigments in a Leaf?

*Problem to Solve 8.4* Can I Create an Absorbance Spectrum for Different Plant Pigment Combinations? *Problem to Solve 8.5* Can I Explain the Chemistry of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration?

**Post-Lab Quiz 8**

**Lab 9 Cell Biology III: Fermenting Sugar to Produce Alcohol**

*Lab Skill 9.1* Preparing for an Experiment

*Lab Skill 9.2* Conducting an Experiment

*Lab Skill 9.3* Graphically Representing Data

*Lab Skill 9.4* Analyzing Data with Statistics

**Pre-Lab Quiz 9**

*Problem to Solve 9.1* Can I Conduct an Experiment and Write a Scientific Report?

**Post-Lab Quiz 9**

**Lab 10 Genetics I: Meiosis and Promiscuous Alien Sex**

*Lab Skill 10.1* Creating and Using Biological Models

**Pre-Lab Quiz 10**

*Problem to Solve 10.1* Can I Use a Model to Demonstrate the Phases of Mitosis and Meiosis?

*Problem to Solve 10.2* Can I Model Nondisjunction and Interpret Nondisjunction Karyotypes?

*Problem to Solve 10.3* Can I Simulate Promiscuous Alien Sex?

**Post-Lab Quiz 10**

**Lab 11 Genetics II: Understanding Inheritance**

*Lab Skill 11.1* Creating a Pedigree

*Lab Skill 11.2* Using a Chi Square Test to Compare Actual Results with Expected Results

**Pre-Lab Quiz 11**

*Problem to Solve 11.1* Can I Solve Basic Genetics Problems?

*Problem to Solve 11.2* Can I Describe Genetic Characteristics of Humans?

*Problem to Solve 11.3* Can I Determine if Observed Phenotypic Ratios Match Predictions?

*Problem to Solve 11.4* Can I Win the Bloody Game?

**Post-Lab Quiz 11**

**Lab 12 Microbiology: Viruses, Bacteria, and Protists**

*Lab Skill 12.1* Preventing Microbiological Contamination

*Lab Skill 12.2* Culturing Microbes in a Petri Dish

*Lab Skill 12.3* Preparing a Gram Stain

**Pre-Lab Quiz 12**

*Problem to Solve 12.1* Can I Observe the Ubiquity and Diversity of the Microbes Around Me?

*Problem to Solve 12.2* Can I Keep my Classmates from Infecting Me?

*Problem to Solve 12.3* Can I Identify the Types of Bacteria Living in My Mouth?

*Problem to Solve 12.4* Can I Visually Recognize Types of Microbes?

**Post-Lab Quiz 12**

**Lab 13 Critical Thinking in the Biological Sciences**

*Lab Skill 13.1* Finding Good Information

*Lab Skill 13.2* Applying the CRAAP Test to Information

*Lab Skill 13.3* Presenting Good Arguments and Countering Bad Ones

*Lab Skill 13.4* Solving Problems Rationally

**Pre-Lab Quiz 13**

*Problem to Solve 13.1* Can I Solve Twenty Brain Twisting Challenges?

*Problem to Solve 13.2* Can I Critically Evaluate Numerical Data?

*Problem to Solve 13.3* Can I Start Thinking Like a Scientist or Medical Professional?

*Problem to Solve 13.4* Can I Analyze an Argument About Bigfoot?

*Problem to Solve 13.5* Can I Identify Medical and Biological Truths, Mysteries, Myths, and Lies?

**Post-Lab Quiz 13**

*Appendix A Metric and SI Units*

*Appendix B Scientific Notation and Significant Figures*

*Appendix C Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions*

*Appendix D The Periodic Table of the Elements and How to Use It*

*Appendix E How to Write a Scientific Paper*

*Appendix F An Application of Stoichiometry and Dimensional Analysis*

*Appendix G Values of the Chi Square Distribution*

**Paul Luyster**

**This is the lab manual for Biology I, the first semester of a two-semester General Biology course for science majors.**

There is so much more to biology than memorizing facts in a textbook. The fun part of biology is actually doing it! This laboratory course is designed to help you develop the hands-on skills of a biologist using the tools found in a typical, modern biology lab.

Each of the exercises in this manual begins with background information to help you understand a core concept of biology. You will then be presented with a question or problem related to that concept. The lab exercise will guide you as you use the scientific method, laboratory tools and standard protocols to answer that question or solve that problem. Throughout the course you will also evaluate scientific information, dig into primary research, use a lab notebook, collect and interpret quantitative data, and practice writing scientific reports.

As you work through this manual you will learn skills that you may use again in future classes, graduate school or in a professional setting. Your manual will become a portfolio of the skills you learn as well as a record of the protocols you master. You may find it valuable reference as you take advanced biology lab courses in the future.

*Introduction*

*Acknowledgments*

*About the Author *

**Lab 1 An Introduction to the Biology Laboratory**

*Lab Skill 1.1* Interpreting Lab Safety Symbols

*Lab Skill 1.2* Keeping a Lab Notebook

*Lab Skill 1.3* Measuring Liquids with Different Lab Equipment

*Lab Skill 1.4* Using a Micropipette

**Pre-Lab Quiz 1**

*Problem to Solve 1.1* Can I Use Scientific Reasoning to Solve a Puzzle?

*Problem to Solve 1.2* Can I Accurately Measure Liquids?

**Post-Lab Quiz 1**

**Lab 2 Using Chemistry in the Biology Lab**

*Lab Skill 2.1* Understanding the Names of Chemical Compounds

*Lab Skill 2.2 *Creating Solutions of Specific Concentration

*Lab Skill 2.3* Creating Dilutions of a Specific Volume

*Lab Skill 2.4* Measure Solute Concentration with a Hydrometer

*Lab Skill 2.5* Calculating pH from Molarity or Molarity from pH

**Pre-Lab Quiz 2**

*Problem to Solve 2.1* Can I Make 500 ml of a 0.9% Saline Solution?

*Problem to Solve 2.2* Can I Make Dilute Acid and Base Solutions?

**Post-Lab Quiz 2**

**Lab 3 Biochemistry: Chemical Compounds of Living Organisms**

*Lab Skill 3.1* Using Indicators to Determine the Presence of Specific Compounds

*Lab Skill 3.2* Managing Heat in the Laboratory

**Pre-Lab Quiz 3 **

*Problem to Solve 3.1* Can I Observe Enzymes Digesting Macromolecules?

**Post-Lab Quiz 3 **

**Lab 4 Molecular Biology I: Understanding and Isolating DNA **

*Lab Skill 4.1* Using a Benchtop Centrifuge

**Pre-Lab Quiz 4 **

*Problem to Solve 4.1* Can I Explain the Events of the Cell Cycle?

*Problem to Solve 4.2* Can I Synthesize a Peptide?

*Problem to Solve 4.3* Can I Collect and Isolate My DNA?

**Post-Lab Quiz 4**

**Lab 5 Microscopy: Observing Life at the Cellular Level**

*Lab Skill 5.1* Properly Using a Light Microscope

*Lab Skill 5.2* Calculating Magnification and Estimating Specimen Size

*Lab Skill 5.3* Using the Oil Immersion Lens

*Lab Skill 5.4* Making a Wet Mount Slide

**Pre-Lab Quiz 5**

*Problem to Solve 5.1* Can I Visually Identify Types of Cells?

*Problem to Solve 5.2* Can I Recognize the Phases of Mitosis?

*Problem to Solve 5.3* Can I Estimate the Size of One Human Cell?

**Post-Lab Quiz 5**

**Lab 6 Cell Biology I: Cellular Membranes and Structures**

*Lab Skill 6.1* Using Dialysis Tubing

*Lab Skill 6.2* Using (More) Chemical Indicators

**Pre-Lab Quiz**

*Problem to Solve 6.1* Can I Predict When Diffusion or Osmosis Will Occur?

*Problem to Solve 6.2* Can I Recognize the Effects of Hypotonic, Hypertonic, and Isotonic Solutions on Cells?

*Problem to Solve 6.3* Can I Design a Cell?

**Post-Lab Quiz 6**

**Lab 7 Molecular Biology II: Manipulating DNA**

*Lab Skill 7.1* Conducting DNA Gel Electrophoresis

*Lab Skill 7.2* Interpreting Electrophoresis Data

**Pre-Lab Quiz 7**

*Problem to Solve 7.1* Can I Predict Restriction Enzyme Recognition Sites?

*Problem to Solve 7.2* Can I Verify Restriction Enzyme Recognition Sites by DNA Electrophoresis?

*Problem to Solve 7.3* Can I Interpret DNA Fingerprint Data?

**Post-Lab Quiz 7**

**Lab 8 Cell Biology II: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration**

*Lab Skill 8.1* Separating Compounds Using Chromatography

*Lab Skill 8.2* Using a Spectrophotometer

**Pre-Lab Quiz 8**

*Problem to Solve 8.1* Can I Observe Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis in a Plant?

*Problem to Solve 8.2* Can I Observe Differences in Human CO2 Production?

*Problem to Solve 8.3* Can I Determine the Pigments in a Leaf?

*Problem to Solve 8.4* Can I Create an Absorbance Spectrum for Different Plant Pigment Combinations? *Problem to Solve 8.5* Can I Explain the Chemistry of Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration?

**Post-Lab Quiz 8**

**Lab 9 Cell Biology III: Fermenting Sugar to Produce Alcohol**

*Lab Skill 9.1* Preparing for an Experiment

*Lab Skill 9.2* Conducting an Experiment

*Lab Skill 9.3* Graphically Representing Data

*Lab Skill 9.4* Analyzing Data with Statistics

**Pre-Lab Quiz 9**

*Problem to Solve 9.1* Can I Conduct an Experiment and Write a Scientific Report?

**Post-Lab Quiz 9**

**Lab 10 Genetics I: Meiosis and Promiscuous Alien Sex**

*Lab Skill 10.1* Creating and Using Biological Models

**Pre-Lab Quiz 10**

*Problem to Solve 10.1* Can I Use a Model to Demonstrate the Phases of Mitosis and Meiosis?

*Problem to Solve 10.2* Can I Model Nondisjunction and Interpret Nondisjunction Karyotypes?

*Problem to Solve 10.3* Can I Simulate Promiscuous Alien Sex?

**Post-Lab Quiz 10**

**Lab 11 Genetics II: Understanding Inheritance**

*Lab Skill 11.1* Creating a Pedigree

*Lab Skill 11.2* Using a Chi Square Test to Compare Actual Results with Expected Results

**Pre-Lab Quiz 11**

*Problem to Solve 11.1* Can I Solve Basic Genetics Problems?

*Problem to Solve 11.2* Can I Describe Genetic Characteristics of Humans?

*Problem to Solve 11.3* Can I Determine if Observed Phenotypic Ratios Match Predictions?

*Problem to Solve 11.4* Can I Win the Bloody Game?

**Post-Lab Quiz 11**

**Lab 12 Microbiology: Viruses, Bacteria, and Protists**

*Lab Skill 12.1* Preventing Microbiological Contamination

*Lab Skill 12.2* Culturing Microbes in a Petri Dish

*Lab Skill 12.3* Preparing a Gram Stain

**Pre-Lab Quiz 12**

*Problem to Solve 12.1* Can I Observe the Ubiquity and Diversity of the Microbes Around Me?

*Problem to Solve 12.2* Can I Keep my Classmates from Infecting Me?

*Problem to Solve 12.3* Can I Identify the Types of Bacteria Living in My Mouth?

*Problem to Solve 12.4* Can I Visually Recognize Types of Microbes?

**Post-Lab Quiz 12**

**Lab 13 Critical Thinking in the Biological Sciences**

*Lab Skill 13.1* Finding Good Information

*Lab Skill 13.2* Applying the CRAAP Test to Information

*Lab Skill 13.3* Presenting Good Arguments and Countering Bad Ones

*Lab Skill 13.4* Solving Problems Rationally

**Pre-Lab Quiz 13**

*Problem to Solve 13.1* Can I Solve Twenty Brain Twisting Challenges?

*Problem to Solve 13.2* Can I Critically Evaluate Numerical Data?

*Problem to Solve 13.3* Can I Start Thinking Like a Scientist or Medical Professional?

*Problem to Solve 13.4* Can I Analyze an Argument About Bigfoot?

*Problem to Solve 13.5* Can I Identify Medical and Biological Truths, Mysteries, Myths, and Lies?

**Post-Lab Quiz 13**

*Appendix A Metric and SI Units*

*Appendix B Scientific Notation and Significant Figures*

*Appendix C Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions*

*Appendix D The Periodic Table of the Elements and How to Use It*

*Appendix E How to Write a Scientific Paper*

*Appendix F An Application of Stoichiometry and Dimensional Analysis*

*Appendix G Values of the Chi Square Distribution*

**Paul Luyster**