Issues in Biology

Edition: 3

Copyright: 2023

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$135.79

ISBN 9798765788806

Details KHP Content w/Engagement 180 days

A solid understanding of basic scientific principles is necessary for everyone—regardless of job position or perceived ability to “do science.” Many students will find themselves in a place where they will need to understand some aspect of science. Most will be parents or voters—and presumably all will be consumers. For these reasons alone, all individuals must have some fundamental scientific skills in order to critically analyze situations, scenarios, or products in an objective, balanced way, or else risk damage to one’s self, loved ones, or the environment. Additionally, many will need to advocate for their health or the health of a loved one.  Issues in Biology focuses on increasing a student's scientific literacy and Biology knowledge by using relevant issues that affect virtually all people. More than just a “hook” to interest students, Issues in Biology places the issue first, in the form of a current article or video, followed by the Biological content necessary to fully understand the significance of the article or video. Specifically written to appeal to the general public, this text makes it clear that all included scientific concepts are deliberately chosen, relevant, and useful to all college students, regardless of their major.

1 Science: What It Is and Why It Matters
     1.1    Connecting You to Science in the Real World
          1.1.1          Educating a Scientifically Literate Citizenry
          1.1.2          Science in the News
          1.1.3          Learning to Find Accurate Scientific Information in the News
          1.1.4          Learning Science on a Need-to-Know Basis

     1.2    What Science IS
          1.2.1          The Nature and Process of Science
          1.2.2          Scientific Methodology
          1.2.3          Scientific Theory versus Popular Theory
          1.2.4          The Meaning of Life

     1.3    What Science Is NOT
          1.3.1          Pseudoscience Is Not Science
          1.3.2          Advertising Is Not Science
          1.3.3          Statistics Is Not Science
          1.3.4          Religion Is Not Science

2 Basics of Life: Cells and Energy
     2.1    Two Types of Cells
          2.1.1          Overview of a Cell
          2.1.2          Prokaryote
          2.1.3          Eukaryote

     2.2    Cell Structure and Function
          2.2.1          Cell Membrane
          2.2.2          Cell Wall
          2.2.3          Cytoskeleton
          2.2.4          Organelles
          2.2.5          Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

     2.3    Cellular Energy
          2.3.1          Photosynthesis
          2.3.2          Cellular Respiration
          2.3.3          ADP - ATP Cycle
          2.3.4          The Role of Enzymes

3 DNA: Structure, Replication, Transcription and Translation
     3.1    DNA Structure and Replication
          3.1.1          The History of DNA
          3.1.2          Chromosomes
          3.1.3          DNA Structure
          3.1.4          Nucleotides

     3.2    DNA Transcription and Translation
          3.2.1          Protein Function
          3.2.2          Protein Structure
          3.2.3          DNA Transcribed into mRNA
          3.2.4          mRNA Translated into Proteins

     3.3    DNA Technology and Frontiers
          3.3.1          Using DNA to Determine Relationships and Lineage
          3.3.2          Forensic DNA
          3.3.3          DNA’s Role in Aging
          3.3.4          DNA’s Role in Cancer

4 Meiosis, Mitosis and Human Reproduction
     4.1    Human Reproductive System
          4.1.1          Female Reproductive System
          4.1.2          Menstrual Cycle
          4.1.3          Male Reproductive System

     4.2    Sex Cells and Fertilization
          4.2.1          Meiosis and Gamete Formation
          4.2.2          Chromosome Assortment and Individuality
          4.2.3          Fertilization
          4.2.4          Contraception
          4.2.5          Assisted Reproductive Techniques

     4.3    Development from Fertilization to Birth
          4.3.1          Mitosis: From 1 Cell to Trillions
          4.3.2          Cell Differentiation and Stem Cells
          4.3.3          Fetal Development and Teratogens

5 Genetics and Heredity
     5.1    Classical Genetics
          5.1.1          The Birth of Genetics
          5.1.2          Genetic Traits and Alleles
          5.1.3          Mendel’s Pea Plant Experiment
          5.1.4          Phenotype, Genotype, and Dominance
          5.1.5          Inheritance and Expression of Alleles

     5.2    Heredity and the Influence of Your Genes
          5.2.1          The Role of DNA in Genetics
          5.2.2          Genetic Disorders Caused by Recessive Alleles
          5.2.3          Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Genetic Disorders
          5.2.4          Incomplete Dominance and Codominance

     5.3    Modern Genetics
          5.3.1          Human Genome Project
          5.3.2          Genetic Testing
          5.3.3          Gene Therapy
          5.3.4          Epigenetics and Genetic Switches

6 Digestive System
     6.1    Food Molecules
          6.1.1          Food: Feast or Famine?
          6.1.2          Carbohydrates
          6.1.3          Lipids
          6.1.4          Proteins

     6.2    Food Digestion
          6.2.1          Purpose of Food Digestion
          6.2.2          Absorption of Food Molecules into Circulatory System
          6.2.3          Mouth, Salivary Glands, and Digestion of Carbohydrates
          6.2.4          Stomach, Small Intestines, and Digestion of Proteins
          6.2.5          Liver, Pancreas, and Digestion of Fats

     6.3    Nutrition
          6.3.1          Eating Healthy Foods
          6.3.2          Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
          6.3.3          Energy and Calories
          6.3.4          Exercise
          6.3.5          Vitamins and Minerals

7 Respiratory System
     7.1    Gas Exchange
          7.1.1          Role of Oxygen in Cellular Respiration
          7.1.2          Obtaining Oxygen
          7.1.3          Eliminating Carbon Dioxide

     7.2    Anatomy of the Respiratory System
          7.2.1          Overview of Respiratory System
          7.2.2          Anatomy of the Lungs
          7.2.3          Anatomy of Alveoli and Capillaries
          7.2.4          The Diaphragm, Inhalation and Exhalation

     7.3    Respiratory Diseases
          7.3.1          Lung Cancer
          7.3.2          Asthma
          7.3.3          Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

8 Circulatory System
     8.1    Overview of the Human Circulatory System
          8.1.1          Path of Blood Through the Body
          8.1.2          Pulmonary Circuit
          8.1.3          Systemic Circuit

     8.2    Heart
          8.2.1          Heart Structure
          8.2.2          Heart Function
          8.2.3          Heart Beat

     8.3    Blood Vessels
          8.3.1          Arteries
          8.3.2          Veins
          8.3.3          Capillaries
          8.3.4          Blood Pressure
          8.3.5          Blockages

     8.4    Blood
          8.4.1          Blood Composition and Cells
          8.4.2          Function of Blood
          8.4.3          Blood Type

9 Excretory System
     9.1    Overview of the Human Excretory System
          9.1.1          Cells Produce Waste
          9.1.2          Filtering Out Toxins
          9.1.3          Organs Involved in Waste Removal

     9.2    Liver
          9.2.1          Structure and Function of the Liver
          9.2.2          Breakdown of Substances in the Liver
          9.2.3          Synthesis and Storage of Hormones and Vital Compounds

     9.3    Kidneys
          9.3.1          Structure and Function of the Kidneys
          9.3.2          Water Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation
          9.3.3          Urine Elimination
          9.3.4          Disorders and Diseases of the Kidneys

     9.4    Large Intestine
          9.4.1          Structure and Function of the Large Intestine
          9.4.2          Water, Vitamin, and Sodium Absorption
          9.4.3          Solid Waste Formation and Elimination
          9.4.4          Disorders and Diseases of the Large Intestine

10 Endocrine System
     10.1 Function of the Endocrine System
          10.1.1        Overview of the Endocrine System
          10.1.2        Hormones
          10.1.3        Maintaining Homeostasis
          10.1.4        Fight or Flight?

     10.2 Organs and Glands of the Endocrine System
          10.2.1        Hypothalamus
          10.2.2        Pituitary
          10.2.3        Thyroid
          10.2.4        Pancreas
          10.2.5        Other Structures Related to the Endocrine System

     10.3 Disorders of the Endocrine System
          10.3.1        Thyroid Dysfunction
          10.3.2        Type 1 Diabetes
          10.3.3        Type 2 Diabetes
          10.3.4        Gestational Diabetes
          10.3.5        Endocrine Disruptors

11 Nervous, Muscular, and Skeletal Systems
     11.1 Nervous System
          11.1.1        Central and Peripheral Nervous System
          11.1.2        Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System
          11.1.3        Nerve Cells
          11.1.4        Learning and Addiction
          11.1.5        Damage to, and Disorders of the Nervous System

     11.2 Muscular System
          11.2.1        Skeletal Muscles and Locomotion
          11.2.2        The Neuromuscular Junction and Skeletal Muscle Contraction
          11.2.3        Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle
          11.2.4        Damage to, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscles

     11.3 Skeletal System
          11.3.1        Structure and Function of Bones
          11.3.2        Joints, Ligaments, and Cartilage
          11.3.3        Damage to, and Disorders of Bones and Joints

12 Immune System
     12.1 Innate Immune Response
          12.1.1        Function of the Immune System
          12.1.2        Skin is the First Line of Defense
          12.1.3        Mucus Membranes Are a Weak Link
          12.1.4        Fever and Inflammation

     12.2 Adaptive Immune Response
          12.2.1        Overview of the Adaptive Immune System
          12.2.2        Lymphatic System
          12.2.3        Cells of the Adaptive Immune System
          12.2.4        Antigens and Antibodies
          12.2.5        Memory Cells and Immunity
          12.2.6        Allergic Response

     12.3 Vaccines
          12.3.1        How Vaccines Stimulate the Immune Response
          12.3.2        Booster Shots
          12.3.3        Importance of Vaccines

13 Evolution: The Foundation of Biology
     13.1 Introduction to Evolution
          13.1.1        What Is Evolution?
          13.1.2        Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
          13.1.3        Overview of Natural Selection

     13.2 Evolution by Natural Selection
          13.2.1        A Long Time!
          13.2.2        Selective Agents
          13.2.3        Genetic Variability
          13.2.4        Inheritance of Mutations

     13.3 Evidence of Evolution
          13.3.1        Geology and the Fossil Record
          13.3.2        Anatomical Similarities
          13.3.3        Biogeography
          13.3.4        DNA Evidence

     13.4 Evolutionary Relationships Among Organisms
          13.4.1        Defining “Species”
          13.4.2        Organizing and Naming Species
          13.4.3        Determining How Living Organisms Are Related

14 Bacteria, Viruses, and Microscopic Life
     14.1 Bacteria
          14.1.1        Bacteria: Overview and Structure
          14.1.2        Bacterial Reproduction
          14.1.3        Antibiotics
          14.1.4        Beneficial Bacteria

     14.2 Viruses
          14.2.1        Alive or Not?
          14.2.2        Viral Reproduction
          14.2.3        HIV and AIDS

     14.3 Other Microscopic Life
          14.3.1        Single-Celled Eukaryotes
          14.3.2        “Algae”
          14.3.3        Pathogenic Microorganisms

15 Plants and Fungi
     15.1 Fungi
          15.1.1        It’s Not a Plant!
          15.1.2        Mushrooms
          15.1.3        Yeast and Mold

     15.2 Types of Plants
          15.2.1        Overview of Plants
          15.2.2        Mosses and Ferns
          15.2.3        Gymnosperms
          15.2.4        Angiosperms

     15.3 Plant Reproduction
          15.3.1        Plant Sex: Male, Female, Both, and Neither!
          15.3.2        Pollination and Pollinators
          15.3.3        The Advantage of Seeds

     15.4 Importance of Fungi and Plants to Humans
          15.4.1        Photosynthesis and Oxygen Production
          15.4.2        Food
          15.4.3        Medicine
          15.4.4        Building and Industrial Uses

16 Animals
     16.1 Overview of Animals
          16.1.1        What Are Animals?
          16.1.2        Early Animals
          16.1.3        Characteristics of an Animal Body

     16.2 “Invertebrates”
          16.2.1        Overview of Invertebrates
          16.2.2        Simple Invertebrate Animals
          16.2.3        Molluscs
          16.2.4        Arthropods

     16.3 “Vertebrates”
          16.3.1        Overview of Vertebrates
          16.3.2        Fishes
          16.3.3        Amphibians
          16.3.4        Birds and Other “Reptiles”
          16.3.5        Mammals

     16.4 Survival Strategies
          16.4.1        What Does It Take to Survive?
          16.4.2        Adaptations to Eat and Find Food
          16.4.3        Adaptations to Prevent Predation
          16.4.4        Adaptations to Survive in Harsh Environments

17 Ecology
     17.1 How the Earth Supports Life
          17.1.1        Ecology and the Biosphere
          17.1.2        Biomes

     17.2 Interactions between Life on Earth
          17.2.1        Communities and Ecosystems
          17.2.2        Population Ecology
          17.2.3        Biodiversity and Extinction
          17.2.4        Exotic and Invasive Species

18 Human Evolution, Migration, and Agriculture
     18.1 Human Evolution
          18.1.1        Africa: Humanity’s Ancestral Birthplace
          18.1.2        Human Ancestors
          18.1.3        The First Humans

     18.2 Early Human Migration
          18.2.1        Historical Human Migration Patterns
          18.2.2        Development of Races and Different Skin Colors

     18.3 Early Agriculture
          18.3.1        Development of Agriculture
          18.3.2        Domestication of Plants and Animals

19 Human Effects on the Earth
     19.1 Human (Over) Population
          19.1.1        The Population Explosion
          19.1.2        Feeding the World
          19.1.3        Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

     19.2 Consequences of Human Progress
          19.2.1        Burning Fossil Fuels
          19.2.2        The Water Crisis
          19.2.3        Air and Water Pollution

     19.3 Current and Future Challenges
          19.3.1        Climate Change
          19.3.2        Renewable Energy Sources

Michael Sawey

Born and raised in Fort Worth, TX, Michael Sawey graduated from Texas Wesleyan University with a degree in Biology.  Michael’s passion for educating the public about science led him to serve as a high school science teacher for several years.  Spurred on by his passion for environmental literacy, Michael continued his graduate studies at Texas Christian University.  After earning his Master’s degree in Environmental Studies in 2008, Michael accepted a position in the Biology department at TCU where he would continue to expand and develop their popular non-majors course, Contemporary Issues in Biology.  Michael’s areas of interest include environmental protection/conservation and preparing today’s college students to be tomorrow’s consumers of science.

April Sawey

Dr. April Sawey began her professional career teaching life and earth science to middle school students. She went on to earn her Master’s of Education in curriculum and instruction.  April served as a public-school administrator for several years before pursuing her doctoral work.  In 2009, she received her PhD in Science Education from Texas Christian University.  Dr. Sawey joined the education department at the Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT) as the Research and Evaluation Specialist. After several years at BRIT, April returned to her roots as a classroom educator.  She now serves as the Elementary Science Specialist at Fort Worth Academy. 

A solid understanding of basic scientific principles is necessary for everyone—regardless of job position or perceived ability to “do science.” Many students will find themselves in a place where they will need to understand some aspect of science. Most will be parents or voters—and presumably all will be consumers. For these reasons alone, all individuals must have some fundamental scientific skills in order to critically analyze situations, scenarios, or products in an objective, balanced way, or else risk damage to one’s self, loved ones, or the environment. Additionally, many will need to advocate for their health or the health of a loved one.  Issues in Biology focuses on increasing a student's scientific literacy and Biology knowledge by using relevant issues that affect virtually all people. More than just a “hook” to interest students, Issues in Biology places the issue first, in the form of a current article or video, followed by the Biological content necessary to fully understand the significance of the article or video. Specifically written to appeal to the general public, this text makes it clear that all included scientific concepts are deliberately chosen, relevant, and useful to all college students, regardless of their major.

1 Science: What It Is and Why It Matters
     1.1    Connecting You to Science in the Real World
          1.1.1          Educating a Scientifically Literate Citizenry
          1.1.2          Science in the News
          1.1.3          Learning to Find Accurate Scientific Information in the News
          1.1.4          Learning Science on a Need-to-Know Basis

     1.2    What Science IS
          1.2.1          The Nature and Process of Science
          1.2.2          Scientific Methodology
          1.2.3          Scientific Theory versus Popular Theory
          1.2.4          The Meaning of Life

     1.3    What Science Is NOT
          1.3.1          Pseudoscience Is Not Science
          1.3.2          Advertising Is Not Science
          1.3.3          Statistics Is Not Science
          1.3.4          Religion Is Not Science

2 Basics of Life: Cells and Energy
     2.1    Two Types of Cells
          2.1.1          Overview of a Cell
          2.1.2          Prokaryote
          2.1.3          Eukaryote

     2.2    Cell Structure and Function
          2.2.1          Cell Membrane
          2.2.2          Cell Wall
          2.2.3          Cytoskeleton
          2.2.4          Organelles
          2.2.5          Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

     2.3    Cellular Energy
          2.3.1          Photosynthesis
          2.3.2          Cellular Respiration
          2.3.3          ADP - ATP Cycle
          2.3.4          The Role of Enzymes

3 DNA: Structure, Replication, Transcription and Translation
     3.1    DNA Structure and Replication
          3.1.1          The History of DNA
          3.1.2          Chromosomes
          3.1.3          DNA Structure
          3.1.4          Nucleotides

     3.2    DNA Transcription and Translation
          3.2.1          Protein Function
          3.2.2          Protein Structure
          3.2.3          DNA Transcribed into mRNA
          3.2.4          mRNA Translated into Proteins

     3.3    DNA Technology and Frontiers
          3.3.1          Using DNA to Determine Relationships and Lineage
          3.3.2          Forensic DNA
          3.3.3          DNA’s Role in Aging
          3.3.4          DNA’s Role in Cancer

4 Meiosis, Mitosis and Human Reproduction
     4.1    Human Reproductive System
          4.1.1          Female Reproductive System
          4.1.2          Menstrual Cycle
          4.1.3          Male Reproductive System

     4.2    Sex Cells and Fertilization
          4.2.1          Meiosis and Gamete Formation
          4.2.2          Chromosome Assortment and Individuality
          4.2.3          Fertilization
          4.2.4          Contraception
          4.2.5          Assisted Reproductive Techniques

     4.3    Development from Fertilization to Birth
          4.3.1          Mitosis: From 1 Cell to Trillions
          4.3.2          Cell Differentiation and Stem Cells
          4.3.3          Fetal Development and Teratogens

5 Genetics and Heredity
     5.1    Classical Genetics
          5.1.1          The Birth of Genetics
          5.1.2          Genetic Traits and Alleles
          5.1.3          Mendel’s Pea Plant Experiment
          5.1.4          Phenotype, Genotype, and Dominance
          5.1.5          Inheritance and Expression of Alleles

     5.2    Heredity and the Influence of Your Genes
          5.2.1          The Role of DNA in Genetics
          5.2.2          Genetic Disorders Caused by Recessive Alleles
          5.2.3          Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Genetic Disorders
          5.2.4          Incomplete Dominance and Codominance

     5.3    Modern Genetics
          5.3.1          Human Genome Project
          5.3.2          Genetic Testing
          5.3.3          Gene Therapy
          5.3.4          Epigenetics and Genetic Switches

6 Digestive System
     6.1    Food Molecules
          6.1.1          Food: Feast or Famine?
          6.1.2          Carbohydrates
          6.1.3          Lipids
          6.1.4          Proteins

     6.2    Food Digestion
          6.2.1          Purpose of Food Digestion
          6.2.2          Absorption of Food Molecules into Circulatory System
          6.2.3          Mouth, Salivary Glands, and Digestion of Carbohydrates
          6.2.4          Stomach, Small Intestines, and Digestion of Proteins
          6.2.5          Liver, Pancreas, and Digestion of Fats

     6.3    Nutrition
          6.3.1          Eating Healthy Foods
          6.3.2          Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
          6.3.3          Energy and Calories
          6.3.4          Exercise
          6.3.5          Vitamins and Minerals

7 Respiratory System
     7.1    Gas Exchange
          7.1.1          Role of Oxygen in Cellular Respiration
          7.1.2          Obtaining Oxygen
          7.1.3          Eliminating Carbon Dioxide

     7.2    Anatomy of the Respiratory System
          7.2.1          Overview of Respiratory System
          7.2.2          Anatomy of the Lungs
          7.2.3          Anatomy of Alveoli and Capillaries
          7.2.4          The Diaphragm, Inhalation and Exhalation

     7.3    Respiratory Diseases
          7.3.1          Lung Cancer
          7.3.2          Asthma
          7.3.3          Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

8 Circulatory System
     8.1    Overview of the Human Circulatory System
          8.1.1          Path of Blood Through the Body
          8.1.2          Pulmonary Circuit
          8.1.3          Systemic Circuit

     8.2    Heart
          8.2.1          Heart Structure
          8.2.2          Heart Function
          8.2.3          Heart Beat

     8.3    Blood Vessels
          8.3.1          Arteries
          8.3.2          Veins
          8.3.3          Capillaries
          8.3.4          Blood Pressure
          8.3.5          Blockages

     8.4    Blood
          8.4.1          Blood Composition and Cells
          8.4.2          Function of Blood
          8.4.3          Blood Type

9 Excretory System
     9.1    Overview of the Human Excretory System
          9.1.1          Cells Produce Waste
          9.1.2          Filtering Out Toxins
          9.1.3          Organs Involved in Waste Removal

     9.2    Liver
          9.2.1          Structure and Function of the Liver
          9.2.2          Breakdown of Substances in the Liver
          9.2.3          Synthesis and Storage of Hormones and Vital Compounds

     9.3    Kidneys
          9.3.1          Structure and Function of the Kidneys
          9.3.2          Water Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation
          9.3.3          Urine Elimination
          9.3.4          Disorders and Diseases of the Kidneys

     9.4    Large Intestine
          9.4.1          Structure and Function of the Large Intestine
          9.4.2          Water, Vitamin, and Sodium Absorption
          9.4.3          Solid Waste Formation and Elimination
          9.4.4          Disorders and Diseases of the Large Intestine

10 Endocrine System
     10.1 Function of the Endocrine System
          10.1.1        Overview of the Endocrine System
          10.1.2        Hormones
          10.1.3        Maintaining Homeostasis
          10.1.4        Fight or Flight?

     10.2 Organs and Glands of the Endocrine System
          10.2.1        Hypothalamus
          10.2.2        Pituitary
          10.2.3        Thyroid
          10.2.4        Pancreas
          10.2.5        Other Structures Related to the Endocrine System

     10.3 Disorders of the Endocrine System
          10.3.1        Thyroid Dysfunction
          10.3.2        Type 1 Diabetes
          10.3.3        Type 2 Diabetes
          10.3.4        Gestational Diabetes
          10.3.5        Endocrine Disruptors

11 Nervous, Muscular, and Skeletal Systems
     11.1 Nervous System
          11.1.1        Central and Peripheral Nervous System
          11.1.2        Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System
          11.1.3        Nerve Cells
          11.1.4        Learning and Addiction
          11.1.5        Damage to, and Disorders of the Nervous System

     11.2 Muscular System
          11.2.1        Skeletal Muscles and Locomotion
          11.2.2        The Neuromuscular Junction and Skeletal Muscle Contraction
          11.2.3        Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle
          11.2.4        Damage to, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscles

     11.3 Skeletal System
          11.3.1        Structure and Function of Bones
          11.3.2        Joints, Ligaments, and Cartilage
          11.3.3        Damage to, and Disorders of Bones and Joints

12 Immune System
     12.1 Innate Immune Response
          12.1.1        Function of the Immune System
          12.1.2        Skin is the First Line of Defense
          12.1.3        Mucus Membranes Are a Weak Link
          12.1.4        Fever and Inflammation

     12.2 Adaptive Immune Response
          12.2.1        Overview of the Adaptive Immune System
          12.2.2        Lymphatic System
          12.2.3        Cells of the Adaptive Immune System
          12.2.4        Antigens and Antibodies
          12.2.5        Memory Cells and Immunity
          12.2.6        Allergic Response

     12.3 Vaccines
          12.3.1        How Vaccines Stimulate the Immune Response
          12.3.2        Booster Shots
          12.3.3        Importance of Vaccines

13 Evolution: The Foundation of Biology
     13.1 Introduction to Evolution
          13.1.1        What Is Evolution?
          13.1.2        Charles Darwin and Natural Selection
          13.1.3        Overview of Natural Selection

     13.2 Evolution by Natural Selection
          13.2.1        A Long Time!
          13.2.2        Selective Agents
          13.2.3        Genetic Variability
          13.2.4        Inheritance of Mutations

     13.3 Evidence of Evolution
          13.3.1        Geology and the Fossil Record
          13.3.2        Anatomical Similarities
          13.3.3        Biogeography
          13.3.4        DNA Evidence

     13.4 Evolutionary Relationships Among Organisms
          13.4.1        Defining “Species”
          13.4.2        Organizing and Naming Species
          13.4.3        Determining How Living Organisms Are Related

14 Bacteria, Viruses, and Microscopic Life
     14.1 Bacteria
          14.1.1        Bacteria: Overview and Structure
          14.1.2        Bacterial Reproduction
          14.1.3        Antibiotics
          14.1.4        Beneficial Bacteria

     14.2 Viruses
          14.2.1        Alive or Not?
          14.2.2        Viral Reproduction
          14.2.3        HIV and AIDS

     14.3 Other Microscopic Life
          14.3.1        Single-Celled Eukaryotes
          14.3.2        “Algae”
          14.3.3        Pathogenic Microorganisms

15 Plants and Fungi
     15.1 Fungi
          15.1.1        It’s Not a Plant!
          15.1.2        Mushrooms
          15.1.3        Yeast and Mold

     15.2 Types of Plants
          15.2.1        Overview of Plants
          15.2.2        Mosses and Ferns
          15.2.3        Gymnosperms
          15.2.4        Angiosperms

     15.3 Plant Reproduction
          15.3.1        Plant Sex: Male, Female, Both, and Neither!
          15.3.2        Pollination and Pollinators
          15.3.3        The Advantage of Seeds

     15.4 Importance of Fungi and Plants to Humans
          15.4.1        Photosynthesis and Oxygen Production
          15.4.2        Food
          15.4.3        Medicine
          15.4.4        Building and Industrial Uses

16 Animals
     16.1 Overview of Animals
          16.1.1        What Are Animals?
          16.1.2        Early Animals
          16.1.3        Characteristics of an Animal Body

     16.2 “Invertebrates”
          16.2.1        Overview of Invertebrates
          16.2.2        Simple Invertebrate Animals
          16.2.3        Molluscs
          16.2.4        Arthropods

     16.3 “Vertebrates”
          16.3.1        Overview of Vertebrates
          16.3.2        Fishes
          16.3.3        Amphibians
          16.3.4        Birds and Other “Reptiles”
          16.3.5        Mammals

     16.4 Survival Strategies
          16.4.1        What Does It Take to Survive?
          16.4.2        Adaptations to Eat and Find Food
          16.4.3        Adaptations to Prevent Predation
          16.4.4        Adaptations to Survive in Harsh Environments

17 Ecology
     17.1 How the Earth Supports Life
          17.1.1        Ecology and the Biosphere
          17.1.2        Biomes

     17.2 Interactions between Life on Earth
          17.2.1        Communities and Ecosystems
          17.2.2        Population Ecology
          17.2.3        Biodiversity and Extinction
          17.2.4        Exotic and Invasive Species

18 Human Evolution, Migration, and Agriculture
     18.1 Human Evolution
          18.1.1        Africa: Humanity’s Ancestral Birthplace
          18.1.2        Human Ancestors
          18.1.3        The First Humans

     18.2 Early Human Migration
          18.2.1        Historical Human Migration Patterns
          18.2.2        Development of Races and Different Skin Colors

     18.3 Early Agriculture
          18.3.1        Development of Agriculture
          18.3.2        Domestication of Plants and Animals

19 Human Effects on the Earth
     19.1 Human (Over) Population
          19.1.1        The Population Explosion
          19.1.2        Feeding the World
          19.1.3        Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

     19.2 Consequences of Human Progress
          19.2.1        Burning Fossil Fuels
          19.2.2        The Water Crisis
          19.2.3        Air and Water Pollution

     19.3 Current and Future Challenges
          19.3.1        Climate Change
          19.3.2        Renewable Energy Sources

Michael Sawey

Born and raised in Fort Worth, TX, Michael Sawey graduated from Texas Wesleyan University with a degree in Biology.  Michael’s passion for educating the public about science led him to serve as a high school science teacher for several years.  Spurred on by his passion for environmental literacy, Michael continued his graduate studies at Texas Christian University.  After earning his Master’s degree in Environmental Studies in 2008, Michael accepted a position in the Biology department at TCU where he would continue to expand and develop their popular non-majors course, Contemporary Issues in Biology.  Michael’s areas of interest include environmental protection/conservation and preparing today’s college students to be tomorrow’s consumers of science.

April Sawey

Dr. April Sawey began her professional career teaching life and earth science to middle school students. She went on to earn her Master’s of Education in curriculum and instruction.  April served as a public-school administrator for several years before pursuing her doctoral work.  In 2009, she received her PhD in Science Education from Texas Christian University.  Dr. Sawey joined the education department at the Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT) as the Research and Evaluation Specialist. After several years at BRIT, April returned to her roots as a classroom educator.  She now serves as the Elementary Science Specialist at Fort Worth Academy.