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Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction

Author(s): Mark Knapp, Judith Hall, Terrence Horgan

Edition: 9

Copyright: 2021

Pages: 432

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New Ninth Edition Now Available!

Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction breaks down nonverbal communication, analyzes it, and looks at it from every angle so that readers have an intellectual and not just an intuitive grasp of this endlessly fascinating subject.

Written by a communication scholar and two social psychologists, the book offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of nonverbal communication that shows how it affects a wide variety of academic interests. The theory and research included in this text comes from scholars with a wide variety of academic backgrounds, including communication, anthropology, counseling, psychology, psychiatry, and linguistics.

Based on the 50+ years of proven success, the NEW Ninth Edition of Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction:

  • includes a mountain of contemporary research that is important and interesting to readers while retaining definitive studies from the past.
  • offers the best and soundest presentation on nonverbal communication while providing scholarly resources that any interested person—from an undergraduate to a professional researcher—can find of value.
  • integrates social, sexual, and political issues of our time, as they relate to the broad discipline of nonverbal communication.
  • is reader friendly!  Activities, photographs, images and additional text boxes within each chapter highlight important, interesting, or current topics relevant to the field of nonverbal communication.
  • is easy to adopt!  The newly-revised instructor’s manual provides the information and imagination necessary for effective classroom learning in nonverbal communication.

PART I AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
CHAPTER 1 Nonverbal Communication: Basic Perspectives

Perspective 1: Defining Nonverbal Communication
Processing Nonverbal Information
Awareness and Control
Perspective 2: Classifying Nonverbal Behavior
The Communication Environment
The Communicators’ Physical Characteristics
Body Movement and Position
Perspective 3: Nonverbal Communication in the Total Communication Process
Repeating
Conflicting
Complementing
Substituting
Accenting/Moderating
Regulating
Perspective 4: Historical Trends in Nonverbal Research
Perspective 5: Nonverbal Communication in Everyday Life
Summary
Questions For Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 2 The Roots of Nonverbal Behavior
The Development of Nonverbal Behavior Across Evolutionary Time
Evidence from Sensory Deprivation
Evidence from Infants
Evidence from Twin Studies
Evidence from Nonhuman Primates
Evidence from Multicultural Studies
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 3 The Ability to Receive and Send Nonverbal Signals
Development and Improvement of Nonverbal Skills
Is it Good to Have More Accurate Knowledge of Nonverbal Communication?
Measuring the Accuracy of Decoding and Encoding Nonverbal Cues
Standardized Tests of Decoding Ability
Personal Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Decoding Nonverbal Cues
Self-Assessments and Explicit Knowledge of Nonverbal Cues
Gender
Age
General Cognitive Ability
Other Personal Correlates
Substance Abuse
Culture
Task Factors Affecting Nonverbal Decoding Accuracy
Characteristics of Accurate Nonverbal Senders
Putting Decoding and Encoding Together
On Being an Observer of Nonverbal Communication
The Fallibility of Human Perception
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

PART II: THE COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER 4 The Effects of the Environment on Human Communication

Perceptions of Surroundings
Perceptions of Formality
Perceptions of Warmth
Perceptions of Privacy
Perceptions of Familiarity
Perceptions of Constraint
Perceptions of Distance
Reacting to Environments
Perceptions of Time
The Natural Environment
Other People in the Environment
Architectural Design and Movable Objects
Personalization 7Color
Sound
Lighting
Movable Objects
Structure and Design
Regulating Environments and Communication
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 5 The Effects of Territory and Personal Space on Human Communication
The Concept of Territoriality
Territoriality: Invasion and Defense
Density and Crowding
The Effects of High Density on Human Beings
Coping with High Density
Conversational Distance
Gender
Age
Cultural and Ethnic Background
Topic or Subject Matter
Setting for the Interaction
Physical Characteristics
Attitudinal and Emotional Orientation
Characteristics of the Interpersonal Relationship
Personality Characteristics
Seating Behavior and Spatial Arrangements in Small Groups
Leadership and Status
Task
Personality and Physical Characteristics
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

PART III: THE COMMUNICATORS
CHAPTER 6 The Effects of Physical Characteristics on Human Communication

The Body: Its General Attractiveness
Dating and Marriage
Beauty on the Job
Persuading Others
Self-Esteem
Antisocial Behavior
The Power of Physical Attractiveness: Some Important Qualifications
The Effects of Interaction
The Effects of Context
Stereotypes Are Not Always Valid
Attractiveness over Time
The Body: Its Specific Features
Attractiveness and the Face
Judgments of the Face
Body Shape
Height
Body Image
Body Color
Body Smell
Body Hair
Clothes and Other Artifacts
Functions of Clothing
Clothing as Information About the Person
Effects of Clothing on the Wearer
Clothing and Personality
Artifacts and Body Decorations
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

PART IV: THE COMMUNICATOR’S BEHAVIOR
CHAPTER 7 The Effects of Gesture, Posture, and Movement on Human Communication

Emotion in Relation to Gesture and Movement
Culture: Universality or Cultural Specificity?
Speech-Independent Gestures
Speech-Related Gestures
Referent-Related Gestures
Gestures Indicating a Speaker’s Relationship to the Referent
Punctuation Gestures
Interactive Gestures
Gesture Frequency
The Coordination of Gesture, Posture, and Speech
Self-Synchrony
Interaction Synchrony
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 8 The Effects of Touch on Human Communication
Touching and Human Development
Who Touches Whom, Where, When, and How Much?
Different Types of Touching Behavior
The Meanings and Impact of Interpersonal Touch
Touch and Positive Affect
Touch and Negative Affect
Touch and Discrete Emotions
Touch and Play
Touch and Influence
Touch and Interaction Management
Touch as Physiological Stimulus
Touch and Interpersonal Responsiveness
Touch as Task Related
Touch as Healing
Touch as Symbolism
Contextual Factors in the Meaning of Interpersonal Touch
Touch Can Be a Powerful Nonconscious Force During Interactions
Self-Touching
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 9 The Effects of the Face on Human Communication
The Face and Personality Judgments
The Face and Interaction Management
Channel Control
Complementing or Qualifying Other Behavior
Replacing Spoken Messages
The Face and Expressions of Emotion
Display Rules and Facial Emotion Expression
The Facial Emotion Controversy
Measuring the Face
Measuring Emotion Recognition
Emotions Inferred from the Face
Physiology and the Face
Internalizers and Externalizers
Facial Feedback
Facial Expressions in Real-World Applications
Health and Clinical Settings
Sales and Service
Groups and Leadership
Media
Everyday Life
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 10 The Effects of Eye Behavior on Human Communication
Gaze and Mutual Gaze
Functions of Gazing
Regulating the Flow of Communication
Monitoring Feedback
Reflecting Cognitive Activity
Expressing Emotions
Communicating the Nature of the Interpersonal Relationship
Conditions Influencing Gazing Patterns
Distance
Group and Physical Characteristics
Personal Characteristics and Personality
Psychopathology
Topics and Tasks
Cultural and Racial Background and Racial Attitudes
Pupil Dilation and Constriction
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 11 The Effects of Vocal Cues that Accompany Spoken Words
The Relative Importance of Channels
The Ingredients and Methods of Studying Paralanguage
Vocal Cues and Speaker Recognition
Vocal Cues and Personality
Vocal Cues and Group Perceptions
Vocal Cues and Judgments of Sociodemographic and Developmental Characteristics
Gender
Age
Social Class or Status/Dominance
Characteristics of Recipients
Vocal Cues and Emotion
Vocal Cues, Comprehension, and Persuasion
Vocal Cues, Comprehension, and Retention
Vocal Cues and Persuasion
Vocal Cues and Turn-Taking in Conversations
Turn-Yielding
Turn-Requesting
Turn-Maintaining
Turn-Denying
Hesitations, Pauses, Silence, and Speech
Location or Placement of Pauses
Types of Pauses
Reasons Why Pauses Occur
Influence and Coordination within the Dyad
Silence
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

PART V: COMMUNICATING IMPORTANT MESSAGES
CHAPTER 12 Using Nonverbal Behavior in Daily Interaction

Communicating Intimacy
Courtship Behavior
Quasi-Courtship Behavior
Liking Behavior or Immediacy
Being Close in Close Relationships
Mutual Influence
Communicating Dominance and Status
Managing the Interaction
Greeting Behavior
Turn-Taking Behavior
Leave-Taking Behavior
Communicating Identity
Personal Identity
Social Identity
Deceiving Others
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

CHAPTER 13 Nonverbal Messages In Special Contexts
Advertising Messages
Political Messages
Teacher–Student Messages
Cultural Messages
High-Contact versus Low-Contact Cultures
Individualism versus Collectivism
Similarities across Cultures
Clinical Settings
Technology and Nonverbal Messages
Summary
Questions for Discussion
Nonverbal Communication in Action: Try This

References

Mark Knapp

Mark L. Knapp (PhD, Pennsylvania State University) is the Jesse H. Jones Centennial Professor Emeritus in Communication and Distinguished. Teaching Professor Emeritus at The University of Texas at Austin. He co-edited the Handbook of Interpersonal Communication and The Interplay of Truth and Deception. In addition to authoring and then co-authoring Lying and Deception in Human Interaction, he co-authored Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction and Interpersonal Communication in Human Relationships. He is past president and fellow of the International Communication Association and past president and distinguished scholar of the National Communication Association.

Judith Hall

Judith A. Hall is University Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Emerita, at Northeastern University in Boston, MA. She is a social psychologist who studies interpersonal interaction, with a focus on person perception and nonverbal communication in daily life and in medical interactions. She co-authored Doctors Talking with Patients/Patients Talking with Doctors: Improving Communication in Medical Care and co-edited Emotion in the Clinical Encounter. Other books include Nonverbal Sex Differences: Communication Accuracy and Expressive Style, Interpersonal Sensitivity: Theory and Measurement, and The Social Psychology of Perceiving Others Accurately.

Terrence Horgan

Terrence G. Horgan is Myron and Margaret Winegarden Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan-Flint. He also is one of the Associate Editors of the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. He is a social psychologist who studies person perception, factors that impact person memory, and the verbal and nonverbal cues people use to signal romantic interest during courtship.

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