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Psychology: The Scientific Approach

Author(s): James Jakubow

Edition: 6

Copyright: 2021

Details: KHP Content w/Engagement | 180 days |

Psychology: The Scientific Approach introduces students to the dynamic world of psychology.  The publication examines the history and methodology of psychology, the basic factors of psychology, combining the basic functions of psychology, and people interacting with people.

The turn-key course package includes access to an electronic textbook written in an engaging, student-friendly tone and includes numerous call-outs, vignettes, photos, graphics, and other examples.  In addition, to assess the comprehension of concepts taught, it is bundled with a notes guide (either printed or electronic) and access to the online course package that includes 2,000 test bank questions, 700 electronic flash cards, and self-paced automatically-graded online testing.

 

 

PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH: (eBook Only w/access to GRL Website)

UNIT ONE: HISTORY AND METHODOLOGY
Chapter 1  Introduction to Psychology
Biology and Philosophy

Prescientific Psychology: The Time Before 1600 CE
The Seventeenth Century and the Development of the Scientific Method
The Eighteenth Century and Biological Electricity
The Nineteenth Century and Research Directly Leading to the Development of Psychology
The Twentieth Century and the Formation of Modern Psychology
Defining Psychology
Psychology as the Study of Thoughts and Feelings
Psychology as the Study of Behavior
Applying the Behavioral Rule Throughout Psychology
Historical Roots of Behaviorism
The History of Behavioral Psychology
Major Figures in Behavior
Speaking Behavioralese
Observing and Recording Behavior
Behavioral Science Methods
Folk Psychology
Descriptive Methods
Correlational Method
Experimental Method
Independent and Dependent Variables
Double and Triple Blind non-Drug Experiments
The Overall Rules of Science
Two Goals of Science: Prediction and Control
The Cyclic Nature of Scientific Research
Statistics
Basic Probability
Central Limit Theorem
The Normal Distribution
Law of Large Numbers
Comparing the Behavioral and Physical Sciences
Lawful Results and Free Will
Comparing the Rate at Which the Physical and Behavioral Sciences Develop
Four vs. Forty Forces
What is an Exact Science?
Are the Behavioral Sciences Integrated?
What do Psychologists do?
Bachelor’s Degree
Master’s Degree
Ph.D. and Psy.D.

UNIT TWO: THE BASIC FACTORS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 2  Neuroscience and Behavior
Neural Bases of Behavior

Electricity in the Cell
Dendrites
Soma and Signal Integration
Axons
Intercellular Communication
Receptor to Motor-Neuron Reflex Arc
More Complex Intercellular Connections
Neuroanatomy
General Structures
Genetics
Transcription and Translation
Muscles
Muscular Activity as Output
Spinal Cord Reflexes
Control of Movement by the Brain
Methodological Techniques
Measuring Dead Tissue
Measuring the Living Brain
Controlling the Living Brain

Chapter 3  Nature and Nurture Working Together
Nature vs. Nurture
Scientific and Social History
Phylogenetic Change: Evolution
Ontogenetic Change: Selection by Consequences
Evolutionary Psychology
Distinguishing Nature from Nurture
Genetic Influences on Behavior
Environmental Influences on Behavior
Finding Nature and Nurture in Gender Development
Perceived and Real Gender Differences
The Chromosomal Characteristics of Gender
The John Joan Case
Gender Related Behavior
The Biopsychosocial Approach to Psychology
History
Biological Influences
Psychological Influences
Social Influences

Chapter 4  Psychology Over the Lifespan
In the Beginning: From Conception to Birth

Prenatal Development: Nature and Nurture From the Start
The Newborn: A Work in Progress

Infancy and Childhood: Taking Off
Physical and Motor Development: Getting Control
Perceptual and Cognitive Development: Extended Horizons
Social and Emotional Development: The Child in the World
Adolescence: Between Two Worlds
Physical Development: In Puberty’s Wake
Cognitive Development: Getting It All Together
Social and Emotional Development: New Rules, New Roles
Adulthood and Aging: The Continuously Changing Self
Becoming an Adult
The Changing Body: What’s Inevitable, What’s Not
Perception and Cognition in Adulthood: Taking the Good with the Bad
Social and Emotional Development During Adulthood
Death and Dying

Chapter 5  Sensation and Perception
Sensation and Perception
Naïve Realism

A Model of Sensation and Perception
Psychophysics
Absolute Threshold
Difference Threshold
Vision
The Stimulus for Vision
The Human Eye
Pathways to the Brain
Color Vision
Hearing
The Stimulus for Hearing
The Auditory System
Coding for Pitch
The Other Senses
Somatosensation
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
Perception
Gestalt Psychology
Depth Perception
Perceptual Constancy
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing

Chapter 6  States of Consciousness
The Nature of Consciousness

Consciousness and the Brain
Levels of Awareness
Sleep and Dreams
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Why Do We Need Sleep?
Sleep Stages
Sleep and Disease
Sleep Disorders
Dreams
Hypnosis
The Nature of Hypnosis
Explaining Hypnosis
Applications of Hypnosis
Psychoactive Drugs
Uses of Psychoactive Drugs
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
Consciousness and Health and Wellness
Positive and Negative Aspects of Our Thoughts
The Meditative State of Mind

Chapter 7  Learning
Definition of Learning
It Makes Your Mouth Water: Classical Conditioning

Pavlov and the Salivating Dogs
Elements of Classical Conditioning
Putting It All Together: Pavlov’s Canine Classic, or Ding, Dong, Bell
Conditioned Emotional Responses: Rats!
Other Conditioned Responses in Humans
Why Does Classical Conditioning Work?
What’s in It For Me? Operant Conditioning
Frustrating Cats: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box and the Law of Effect
B. F. Skinner: The Behaviorist’s Behaviorist
The Concept of Reinforcement
Other Operant Concepts
The Schedules of Reinforcement: Why the One-Armed Bandit is So Seductive
Punishment
Stimulus Control: Slow Down, It’s the Cops
Applying Operant Conditioning: Behavior Modification
Cognitive Learning Theory
Tolman’s Maze-Running Rats: Latent Learning
Seligman’s Depressed Dogs: Learned Helplessness
Kohler’s Smart Chimp: Insight Learning
Observational Learning
Bandura and the Bobo Doll
The Four Elements of Observational Learning
Applying Psychology to Everyday Life: Can You Really Toilet Train Your Cat?
Ready? First Start By Training Yourself . . .

Chapter 8  Memory
Memory and Information Processing

Mental Representations
Information Processing: An Evolving Model
Working Memory
Processing Information in Working Memory: The Central Executive
Visual and Verbal Storage
The Relation between Working Memory and Long-Term Memory
Varieties of Long-Term Memory
Declarative and Procedural Memory
Explicit and Implicit Memory
Everyday Memory
Encoding and Organization of Long-Term Memory
Encoding
Mnemonic Devices
Networks of Association
Schemas
Cross-Cultural Variation in Memory—Better, Worse, or Just Different?
Remembering, Misremembering, And Forgetting

How Long Is Long-Term Memory?
How Accurate Is Long-Term Memory?
Why Do People Forget?
Motivated Forgetting

UNIT THREE: COMBINING THE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY
Chapter 9  Intelligence
What Is Intelligence? Definitional Confusion

Special Considerations in Interpreting Intelligence Research
Intelligence as Sensory Capacity: Out of Sight, Out of Mind
Intelligence as Abstract Thinking
That Controversial Little Letter: g
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Multiple Intelligences: Different Ways of Being Smart
Biological Bases of Intelligence
Intelligence Testing: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Two More Controversial Letters: IQ
The Eugenics Movement: Misuses and Abuses of IQ Testing
IQ Testing Today
Standardized Tests: What Do They Measure?
Reliability of IQ Scores: is IQ Forever?
Validity of IQ Scores: Predicting Life Outcomes
A Tale of Two Tails: From Mental Retardation to Genius
Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ
Exploring Genetic Influences on IQ
Exploring Environmental Influences on IQ
Group Differences in IQ: The Science and the Politics
Sex Differences in IQ and Mental Abilities
Racial Differences in IQ
The Rest of the Story: Other Dimensions of Intellect
Creativity
Personality, Interests, and Intellect
Emotional Intelligence: Is EQ as Important as IQ?
Why Smart People Believe Strange Things
Wisdom

Chapter 10  Personality
What Is Personality?

The Psychodynamic Approach
The Phenomenological Approach
The Social Learning Approach
Personality: A Definition
The Trait Approach
Allport: The Idiographic and the Nomothetic Approaches
Cattell and the Factor Analytic Approach
Eysenck’s Three-Factor Solution
The “Big Five”
Heredity and Traits
Do Traits Predict Behavior?
The Psychodynamic Approach
The Origins of Freud’s Theory
Instincts
The Structure of Personality
Freud’s Model of the Mind
Displacement and Sublimation
Defense Mechanisms
Rogers and the Phenomenological Approach
The Self
The Behavioral Approach
Social Learning Theory

Locus of Control
Reciprocal Determinism
Personality Tests
Objective Personality Test

Chapter 11  Psychological Disorders
Studying Psychological Disorders

Identifying Abnormal Behavior: Four Basic Standards
Explaining Abnormality: From Superstition to Science
Classifying Abnormal Behavior: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV-TR
Anxiety Disorders
Four Major Anxiety Disorders: The Problem of Fear
Causes of Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Understanding Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Causes of Mood Disorders: Biological Versus Psychosocial Factors
Schizophrenia
Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Five Areas of Disturbance
Types of Schizophrenia: Recent Methods of Classification
Causes of Schizophrenia: Nature and Nurture Theories
Other Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders
Dissociative Disorders: When the Personality Splits Apart
Personality Disorders: Antisocial and Borderline
How Gender and Culture Affect Abnormal Behavior
Gender and Depression: Why Are Women More Depressed?
Culture and Schizophrenia: Differences Around the World
Avoiding Ethnocentrism

UNIT FOUR: PEOPLE INTERACTING WITH PEOPLE
Chapter 12  Social Psychology
Social Cognition

Impression Formation
Stereotypes
Attribution Theory
Social Influence
Social Norms
Social Roles
Conformity
Compliance
Obedience
Interpersonal Attraction
Proximity
Similarity
Gain/Loss Theory
Physical Attractiveness
Altruistic Behavior
Norm of Social Responsibility
Norm of Reciprocity
Cost-Reward Approach to Altruism
Emergency Situations
Other Variables in Helping
Aggression
Explaining Aggression
Aggression as an Innate Behavior
Aggression as a Learned Behavior

Glossary
References
Index

 

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY: LECUTRE NOTES AND STUDY GUIDE (Offered in Print or eBook)

1. Introduction
2. Neuroscience and Behavior
3. Nature & Nurture Working Together
4. Developmental Psychology
5. Sensation & Perception
6. States of Consciousness
7. Learning
8. Memory
9. Intelligence
10. Personality
11. Psychological Disorders
12. Social Psychology

James Jakubow

Related ISBN's: 9781792478734

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ISBN 9781792478734

Details KHP Content w/Engagement 180 days