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Public Speaking in a Diverse Society

Author(s): Jennifer H Waldeck, Patricia Kearney, Timothy G. Plax

Edition: 5

Copyright: 2017

Details: eBook w/KHPContent Access | 180 days |

For even the most successful business executives, political leaders, and entertainers, the process of giving a speech can be a frightening and humbling experience.

Based on the author’s experience teaching thousands of individuals on how to prepare and deliver a speech, Public Speaking in a Diverse Society, explains how students can manage their fears and anxieties about speaking and be able to adapt to culturally diverse audiences.

To help students become more effective public speakers in a culturally diverse environment, Jennifer Waldeck, Patricia Kearney, and Timothy G. Plax’ Public Speaking in a Diverse Society:

  • Takes the position that public speaking is a lot like normal conversation. It frames public speaking around a communication-based model of public speaking, which includes the source (speaker), message (speech), channel (face-to-face or via media), receivers (audience), feedback (audience response), and context (time, place, and occasion).
  • Moves beyond a generic approach to the teaching of public speaking to one that reflects the cultural diversity of the United States. This attention to cultural diversity has been an integral part of our approach from the start, and it pervades the entire text.
  • Includes updates, new content, and organization based on the feedback from many adopting instructors.
  • Is student friendly! Building Your Skills boxes present practical tips and strategies; Assessing Yourself boxes help students evaluate their knowledge about public speaking, and; A Close Look boxes highlight examples and topics of special interest.
  • Integrates Questions for Critical Thinking and Review to give students an opportunity to develop their critical thinking skills and to delve more deeply into some of the issues raised.

Preface

About The Authors

PART 1 A Multicultural Approach to Public Speaking

Chapter 1: A Contemporary Approach to Public Speaking
Public Speaking as Extended Conversation
What Is Communication?
A Communication-Based Model of Public Speaking
Public Speaking as Planned Conversation
Relating One-on-One
Communicating Face-to-Face
Planning for Spontaneity
Communicating in a Culturally Diverse Society
What Is Culture?
Recognizing and Managing Our Diversity
Ancestry of U.S. Population by Rank
Cultural Exclusion in Public Speaking
Cultural Inclusion: The Contemporary Approach
Public Speaking and Critical Thinking
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 2: Getting Started: Your First Speech
Common Goals or Functions of Speeches
Informing Others
Persuading Others
Entertaining Others
Specialized Goals
Modes of Speech Delivery
Manuscript Delivery: Reading from a Prepared Text
Memorized Delivery: Reciting the Text from Memory
Impromptu Delivery: Speaking Off-the-Cuff
Extemporaneous Delivery: Speaking from Notes or an Outline
Steps in Preparing Your First Presentation
Analyze Your Audience
Select Your Topic
Research Your Subject
Organize and Outline Your Presentation
Rehearse Your Speech
See What You Think: A Student’s First Speech
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review

Chapter 3: The Influence of Culture on Public Speaking
The Influence of Culture on Communication
Identifying Cultural Features That Make a Difference
Co-Culturally Unique Styles of Speaking
Euro-Americans
Latinos and Latinas
African Americans/Black Americans
Asian Americans
Native Americans
Middle Eastern Americans
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

PART 2 A Focus on the Speaker

Chapter 4: Developing Confidence: Coping with Your Fears about Public Speaking
Communication Apprehension as a Common Reaction
Apprehensive People
Apprehensive Situations
Apprehensive Cultural Groups
Causes of Public Speaking Anxiety
Feeling Conspicuous and Inspected
Facing an Unfamiliar or Dissimilar Audience
Confronting a Novel or Formal Speaking Situation
Feeling Subordinate to Your Audience
Undergoing Evaluation
Remembering Repeated Failures
Relying on English as Another Language: A Special Problem
Dealing with Communication Apprehension
Reducing Your Fears
Managing Your Stage Fright
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 5: Being a Credible and Ethical Speaker
The Power of First Impressions
The Process of Selective Perception
The Impact of Stereotypes
The Process of Self-Presentation
Establishing Speaker Credibility
Demonstrate Competence
Generate Trust
Exhibit Composure
Communicate Sociability
Display Extroversion
A Note of Caution
Being Perceived as an Ethical Public Speaker
The Important Decisions Public Speakers Make
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

PART 3 A Focus on the Audience

Chapter 6: Analyzing and Adapting to Diverse Audiences
Identifying Your Target Audience
The Contiguous Audience
The Media Audience
Analyzing Your Audience
Audience Demographics
Audience Psychographics
Formal Methods of Analyzing Your Audience
Creating a Profile of Your Audience
Adapting to Your Audience
Dealing with Co-Culturally Dissimilar Audiences
Challenging Individuals and Situations
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 7: Listening Actively
Understanding the Listening Process
What Is Listening?
The Importance of Effective Listening
Speaker–Audience Reciprocity
The Responsibilities of Speakers
The Responsibilities of Audience Members
Common Obstructions to Effective Listening
Common Misconceptions about Listening
Five Barriers to Effective Listening
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

PART 4 Preparing the Text of Your Speech

Chapter 8: Selecting and Researching Your Topic
Selecting a Topic
Getting Started
Selecting a General Area or Subject
Narrowing the Topic
Specifying Your Purpose
Formulating a Thesis Statement
Researching Your Topic
Types of Support
Gathering Information About Your Topic
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review

Chapter 9: Organizing and Outlining Your Speech
Why Organize?
Making Sense of the Speech for Yourself
Making Sense of the Speech for Your Audience
“Making Sense” as a Function of Culture
Linear Logic
Configural Logic
Co-Cultural Logic Preferences
Using Different Logics to Organize Your Speech
Types of Linear Patterns
Types of Configural Patterns
Sample Speech Logics
Outlining
Types of Outlines
Simple Rules for Outlining Your Speech
Sample Full-Content Outlines
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 10: Introductions and Conclusions
Beginning Your Speech
Establish Your Credibility
Compel Your Audience to Listen
Preview Your Speech: Tell Them What You’re Going to Tell Them
Ending Your Speech
Summarize Your Speech: Tell Them What You Just Told Them
Leave Them Wanting to Hear More
Strategies to Grab and Motivate Your Audience
Personal Stories
Emotional Appeals
Humor
Repetition
Famous Quotations
Startling Facts and Statistics
Dramatic Illustrations
Strategies to Avoid
Overused Clichés
Disclaimers and Apologies
Rhetorical Questions
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review

Chapter 11: Speaking to Inform
Goals and Types of Informative Speeches
Goals of Informative Speaking
Types of Informative Speeches
Organizing and Outlining an Informative Speech
A Basic Format for Informing
Outlining the Informative Speech
Six Strategies For Informing
Keep It Simple
Keep It Concrete
Be Repetitive and Redundant
Elicit Active Responses
Use Familiar and Relevant Examples
Use Transitions and Signposts
See What You Think: A Student’s Informative Speech
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 12: Speaking to Persuade
Goals and Types of Persuasive Speeches
Changing Attitudes
Changing Beliefs
Changing Behavior
Types of Persuasive Speeches
Considering the Audience
The Human Tendency to Resist Change
Adapting to Your Audience
Organizing and Outlining a Persuasive Speech
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Making the Most of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Outlining a Persuasive Speech
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 13: Special Occasion Speeches and Group Presentations
Ceremonial Speeches
Introductions
Welcomes
Nominations
Award Speeches
Tributes
Commencement Speeches
Dedications
Farewells
Other Types of Specialized Public Presentations
Oral Performances of Literature
Entertaining Speeches
Question-and-Answer Sessions
Speaking in Groups
Group Presentation Formats
Guidelines for Group Participation
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

PART 5 A Focus on Speech Delivery

Chapter 14: Generating Arguments
The Basics of the Reasoning Process
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Supporting Evidence
The Toulmin Model of Argument
Common Patterns of Reasoning
Reasoning by Example
Reasoning by Analogy
Reasoning by Cause
Reasoning by Sign
Reasoning by Authority
Combining Different Types of Reasoning in Your Speech
Evaluating the Soundness of Arguments
Proposing a False Dilemma
Criticizing the Source Rather Than the Issue
Relying on False Experts
Claiming That “Everybody Does It”
Arguing That “That’s the Way It Has Always Been Done”
Using Threats
Jumping to Conclusions
Arguing a False Cause
Arguing in Circles
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 15: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: Making Every Word and Every Gesture Count
Verbal Strategies
Speaking To Be Understood
Keep It Simple
Limit Your Use of Jargon and Acronyms
Avoid Phrases That Don’t Say Anything
Pronounce Your Words Accurately
Adapt to Audience Responses to Your Accent or Dialect
Appreciate Your Efforts to Speak English as an Another Language
Speaking to Show Strength
Use Imaginative Imagery
Use Intense, Animated Language
Choose the Active Voice
Use Power Words and Avoid Unnecessary Qualifiers
Speaking to Include, Not Alienate
Use Bias-Free Language
Practice Being Verbally Immediate
Avoid Profanity
Speaking to Be Noticed and Quoted
The Interplay of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Strategies
Look Like a Public Speaker
Use Your Body Effectively
Look at Your Audience
Keep Your Audience Interested
Use Your Voice to Your Advantage
Practice Being Nonverbally Immediate
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

Chapter 16: Using Sensory Aids
Sensory Support In Public Speaking
What Are Sensory Aids?
Deciding Whether to Use Visual Aids
Types of Visual Aids
Graphs
Charts
Physical Representations
Visual Representations
Contemporary Sensory Aids
What You Need to Know about Presentation Software
The Advantages of Using Presentation Software
Steps for Creating Effective Digital Slides
Guidelines for Formatting Digital Slides
Slides Should Have Plenty of White (Unfilled) Space
Limit Your Use of Animations
Use High-Quality Graphics
Guidelines for Effectively Using Visual Aids
Don’t Overuse Visual Aids
Remove Visual Aids From Sight When You No Longer Need Them
Never Turn Your Back to Your Audience
Thoroughly Rehearse With Your Visual Aids
Be Prepared for Technical Difficulties
Chapter Review
Questions For Critical Thinking and Review
Notes

 

Jennifer H Waldeck

Jennifer Waldeck (Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara), has published or presented over 100 scholarly articles and research papers in top journals and at conferences. Her research interests are in instructional, organizational, and business communication. She is Associate Professor in the School of Communication at Chapman University in Orange, CA where she is Director of the Graduate Teaching Associate and Basic Communication Course programs. She teaches courses in organizational and business communication, persuasion, training and consulting, and the fundamentals of communication.

Patricia Kearney

Pat Kearney (Ed.D., West Virginia University) has done considerable research in communication apprehension, but she is best known for her research on teacher power, teacher behaviors, and college student resistance in the classroom. She has published over 100 research articles and several books. A Professor of Communication Studies at California State University, Long Beach, Pat teaches courses in business communication, public speaking, and interpersonal communication.

Timothy G. Plax

Tim Plax (Ph.D., University of Southern California) has done extensive research in persuasion and organizational communication, but he is best known for his programmatic research in instructional communication. He has published over 150 research articles, books, and technical reports. A Professor of Communication Studies and Director of the Hauth Center for Communication Skills at California State University, Long Beach, Tim teaches courses in persuasion, public speaking, and organizational communication.

Related ISBN's: 9781524945619

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