Reflecting Humanity: Biological, Psychological, & Sociological Perspectives

Author(s): LaKeita Carter

Edition: 3

Copyright: 2019


Details: eBook w/KHPContent Access | 180 days |

Reflecting Humanity by La Keita Carter helps to develop a clear understanding of, not only the context, but also the difference between race and ethnicity. The text tackles social issues and movements Americans have been exposed to in recent years and the history of their origins. An important aspect of societal movements is culture and the identity and privilege that lies within it.

Reflecting Humanity takes a deeper look into the different cultures that exist in humanity and challenges the reader to rethink their definition of their own cultural makeup and culture as whole.

CHAPTER 1 Culture: Remembering What’s Important

Module 1 | Exploring Culture

What is Culture?

Characteristics of Culture

Module 2 | All Things Related to Culture

Power and Privilege

Cultural Influence


Module 3 | Culture Theories

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Berry’s Model of Acculturation

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 2 Multiculturalism: Recognizing Our Place in Society

Module 1 | The Coexistence of Cultures


Theoretical Perspectives on How Groups Function

Melting Pot versus Salad Bowl Theory

Module 2 | Pulling Back the Curtain on the “isms”






Module 3 | Attitude Formation and Social Change

Learning Theory

Dissonance Theory

Elaboration Likelihood Model of Attitude Change

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 3 Race and Ethnicity: Reexamining Group Similarities and Differences

Module 1 | Diversity of Perspectives on Race

Biological Perspectives of Race

Social Perspectives of Race

Psychological Perspectives of Race

Module 2 | Types of Racial Groups


Black or African American

American Indian or Alaska Native


Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

Module 3 | Racial Identity Models

Cross’ Black Identity Development Model (1973)

Helms’ White Identity Development Model (1984)

Sue & Sue’s Racial/Cultural Identity Development Stages (1999)

Module 4 | Reviewing Racism

Social Movement

On the Legal Books

Module 5 | Ethnicity



Beliefs, Rituals and Customs

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 4 Gender: Reconsidering Social Labels

Module 1 | Sex As A Biological Label

Female Sex Characteristics v

Male Sex Characteristics

Intersex Characteristics

Module 2 | Gender: The Psychological Component of Sex

Transgender People

Module 3 | Social Components of Gender

Conscious Gender Socialization

Unconscious Gender Socialization

Gender Minority: Women

Gender Minority: Transgender People

Social and Psychological Perspectives

Module 4 | The Influences of Gender Identity

Evolutionary Theory

Biological/Hormone Theory

Sociocultural Theory

Module 5 | Scrutinizing Sexism

Social Movement

On the Legal Books

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 5 Sexual Orientation: Realizing the Complexities of Sexuality

Module 1 | Defining and Categorizing Sexual Orientation 94




Kinsey’s Research on Sexual Orientation

Module 2 | Theories of LGBT Identity Formation

Cass’ Theoretical Model of Homosexual Identity Formation


Coleman’s Theoretical Model of Homosexual Identity Formation


Troiden’s Theoretical Model of Homosexual Identity Formation


Lipkin’s Theoretical Model of Homosexual Identity Formation


Research on the Coming-out Process

Module 3 | Diversity of Perspectives on Sexual Orientation

Biological Perspectives

Social Perspectives

Psychological Perspectives

Module 4 | Holding Power and Privilege

Sexual Majority

Sexual Minorities: Homosexual and Bisexual Orientations

Module 5 | Honing in on Heterosexism 111

Social Movement

On the Legal Books

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 6 Religion: Recognizing Social Groups with a Higher Purpose

Module 1 | The Development and Function of Religion in Society

Characteristics of Organized Religions

Module 2 | The Culture of the World’s Major Religions






Module 3 | Religious Culture in the United States

Historical Impact of Puritans and Quakers on U.S. Culture and Social


Religious Movements Originating in the United States

Module 4 | Religious Privilege (and the lack thereof) in the United States

Christian Privilege

Lacking Religious Privilege

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 7 Health: Reviewing Healthfulness and Health Disparities

Module 1 | Dimensions of Health

Physical Health  vii

Mental Health

Spiritual Health

Social Health

Financial Health

Sexual Health

Environmental Health

Module 2 | A Diversity of Perspectives on Health Disparities

Biological Perspectives of Health

Psychological Perspectives of Health

Sociological Perspectives of Health

Module 3 | The Differently Abled

Developmental Disabilities

Learning Disabilities

Psychiatric/mental disabilities

Module 4 | Analyzing Ableism


Social Movement

On the Legal Books

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 8 Family: Rediscovering the Impact of Relationships

Module 1 | The Function and Structure of Family

The Function of Marriage and Family

The Structure of Family

Bronfenbrenner’s Model

Module 2 | Family Structure and Ethnicity

African American Families

Latino American Families

Asian American Families

European American Families

Native American Families

Module 3 | Family Structure and Other Cultures



Socioeconomic Status

Module 4 | Traditional versus Nontraditional Family Structure

Families with LGBT Parents

Grandparent-led Families

Single-parent Families

Mixed-culture Families

Cohabitating Families

Other Nontraditional Families

Module 5 | Dissecting The Family

Parenting Styles

Research on Parenting Styles

Birth Order

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


CHAPTER 9 Research: Reassessing Scientific Investigation

Module 1 | The Scientific Method

Step 1: Questioning a Specific Observation

Step 2: Formulating a Hypothesis

Step 3: Testing Your Hypothesis

Step 4: Analyzing the Data

Step 5: Drawing Conclusions

Module 2 | Cultural Bias in Research

The History of Research in the Social Sciences

Cultural Bias in Sampling Methods

Cultural Bias in the Researcher and Research Design

Bias in Data Collection and Participant Responding

Bias in Data Reporting

Avoiding Bias in Research

Module 3 | Researching Different Cultures

Dimension 1: Exploratory versus Hypothesis Testing

Dimension 2: Presence versus Absence of Contextual Factors

Dimension 3: Structure-oriented versus Level-oriented

Dimension 4: Individual-level versus Cultural-level

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions


 ´ ix

CHAPTER 10 Communications: Rethinking How We Connect

Module 1 | Verbal versus Nonverbal Communication

Verbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication

Module 2 | Theories of Communication

Systems Theory: An Interpersonal Communications Theory

Attribution Theory: An Intrapersonal Communications Theory

Module 3 | Cooperation and Conflict in Communication

Intact and Violated Communication Rules

High-context versus Low-context Communication


Module 4 | Barriers to Successful Communication

Inclusive Language

Hate Speech

Inattention and Distractions

Memory Retention

Chapter Summary

Discussion Questions




LaKeita Carter

Dr. La Keita Carter is the director of the Behavioral Health and Assessment Services Division at Loyola Clinical Centers (of Loyola University Maryland) and assistant professor of psychology at the Community College of Baltimore County on the Essex campus. After receiving her undergraduate degree from Temple University, she earned her master’s and doctoral degrees from Loyola University Maryland. As a licensed psychologist who was trained in clinical psychology, Dr. Carter splits her professional time between training graduate students in psychology and teaching psychology. She has taught a myriad of online and face-to-face classes at the undergraduate and graduate levels including Introduction to Psychology, Health and Wellness, Group Counseling, Psychometrics, Personal Life and Career Planning, Personality Psychology, Psychology of Learning, Social Psychology, Advanced Issues in Eating Disturbances, Human Relations in a Culturally Diverse Society, and Diversity Issues in Psychology. She has also worked as a psychotherapist in a number of clinical settings including hospitals, community mental health agencies, college counseling centers, and school systems. She is a member of the Maryland Psychological Association (MPA), Association for Psychology Training Clinics (APTC) and American Psychological Association (APA). She lives in Baltimore, Maryland, with her husband and two children.

Related ISBN's: 9781524977764, 9781524953355

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ISBN 9781524977764

Details eBook w/KHPContent Access 180 days