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Speaking to Persuade

Author(s): Barbara Breaden

Edition: 4

Copyright: 2019

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Details: Ebook w/KHQ | 180 days |

Speaking to Persuade views controversy as constructive rather than obstructive. Framing persuasion as a cooperative act based on dialectical interchange between speakers and listeners, this text provides a roadmap for achieving productive civic engagement in democratic societies, however polarized they may be.

This fourth edition again translates theory into practice, first by emphasizing invention and critical thinking to formulate ideas, and second by advancing practice in the rhetorical canons:

  • awakening vivid language and reliable memory to enliven speech delivery
  • developing reasoning and refutation skills
  • organizing coherent and convincing messages,
  • navigating political polarization, balancing inclusive speech with freedom of speech, and stimulating rigorous evidence analysis
  • adapting basic persuasive principles to prominent persuasive genres: sales, legal summations, public advocacy, and social commentary.

In addition, students have access to KHQ—an independent study app available on Google Play and Apple Stores—that includes customized study sections, flash cards, quizzes, explanations of incorrect answers, and an overview of personal performance.

To make the transition to the publication virtually seamless for adopting instructors, the author has developed sample syllabi, a full slate of course assignments and grading rubrics, video speech links, slide presentations, and a test bank.

As a textbook for the college persuasion course, Speaking to Persuade also serves as a self-help workbook in speech skills and as a speech-writing guide for professional speechwriters and their clients. Annotated sample speeches with online examples demonstrate how others have practiced well the art of rhetoric in an array of contexts.  

PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Part One Perspectives on Persuasion

CHAPTER 1 THE WHYS AND WHATS OF PERSUASION
   Why Persuasion?
   The Importance of Persuasion
      Democracy and Polarization
      Benefits of Persuasion
   Persuasion through Dialectic
   So What Is Persuasion?
   Does Persuasion Infringe on Others’ Rights?
      How Persuasion Differs from Force
      Considering Propaganda and False Information
      Authentic Persuasion and Free Will
   Is Persuasion Common to All Societies?
   Since You Asked . . .
   The Canons of Rhetoric: Stages of Persuasive Speaking
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Oral Practice

Part Two Invention: Preparing to Persuade

CHAPTER 2 THINKING ABOUT CONTROVERSIES
   Considering Controversies and Issues
      What Is Worth Arguing?
   When We Must Choose a Subject
   Defining the Purpose
   Framing the Proposition
   Types of Propositions
   Looking for and Using Evidence
      Why Evidence?
      Primary versus Secondary Sources
      Sources of Evidence
         The Foundational Value of Online Information
      Online Resources: Academic Searches
      Online Resources: General Searches
      About Wikipedia
      First-Hand Sources
   Types of Evidence
      Testimony
      Examples
      Facts and Data
         Considering “Facts” and Disinformation
   Since You Asked . . .
   Evaluating Evidence
   Questioning Your Evidence
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Speech Subject Brainstorm

CHAPTER 3 DISCOVERING ARGUMENTS: USING THE COMMON TOPICS
   The Search for Ideas
   Critical Thinking and Persuasion
   The Function of the Common Topics
   Putting the Topics to Use
   Since You Asked . . .
   Speech Preparation Checklist
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Speech Preparation Worksheet

CHAPTER 4 DISCOVERING ARGUMENTS: ANALYZING AND REPAIRING YOUR CREDIBILITY
   Finding Arguments in Ethos
      The Ancient View
      A Contemporary Perspective
   Credibility and Leadership
   Credibility and Power
   The Variability of Credibility
   What Can We Do about Our Ethos ?
   Since You Asked . . .
   Ethical Considerations for the Persuasive Speaker
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Oral Practice

 CHAPTER 5 ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE
    Uncovering Audience Information
      First Steps
      Cautions and Considerations
      The Opportunity for Audience Polling
    Constructing an Audience Questionnaire
      The Likert Scale
      The Semantic Differential

      Fixed Alternative Questionnaires
      Open-Ended Questionnaires
   What to Do with Audience Information
      About Me, the Speaker
      About Experience
   Since You Asked . . .
      About Knowledge
      Audience Attitude and the Proposition
      Modifying the Proposition
    In Summary
    Theory into Practice
    Sketching out the Audience Survey

Part Three Organization and Style: Speech Construction

CHAPTER 6 PERSUASIVE SPEECH ORGANIZATION
   Core Structure
   Organization and the Proposition
      Propositions of Fact
      Propositions of Value
      Propositions of Policy
   Dealing with Counterarguments
   Looking over the Outline
   Introductions and Conclusions
      Introductions
         Attention
         The Primacy of Stories
         Connect Audience and Issue
   Since You Asked . . .
      Proposition
      Signposts
      Conclusions
         Review
         Recall the Proposition
         Reinforce Audience Connection
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Oral Practice
   Outline Worksheet for Speech of Fact
   Outline Worksheet for Speech of Value
   Outline Worksheet for Speech of Policy

CHAPTER 7 REASONING AND REFUTATION
   The Nature of Reasoning
   Forms of Reasoning
      Deduction
      Induction
      Causal Reasoning 
      Comparison
   Vulnerable Reasoning and Fallacies
      Faulty Reasoning
      Types of Fallacies
         Hasty Generalization, Stereotyping, and Ad Hominem Arguments
         Appeals to Conformity, Popular Sentiment, and Tradition
         False Cause
         Faulty Comparison
   Building a Refutation
   Since You Asked  . . .
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice

CHAPTER 8 VERBAL STYLE IN PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
   Language and Emotional Appeal
   The Persuasive Use of Imagination
      Why Images?
      Metaphor and Persuasion
      Finding Places for Images
   Since You Asked  . . .
      Creating Persuasive Images
   Terminology and Audience Identification
      Ultimate Terms and Persuasion
      Political Correctness, Inclusiveness, and Ultimate Terms
         Inclusiveness
            Inclusive Speech and Freedom of Speech
            Finding a Middle Ground
         Gender and Ultimate Terms
   Other Perspectives on Usage
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Oral Practice

Part Four Memory and Delivery: Speech  Presentation

CHAPTER 9 MEMORY: ENHANCING RECALL AND REDUCING ANXIETY
   On the Accuracy of Memory
      How Memory Works
      Memory in Speechmaking
   Memory and Invention
      Mnemonic Devices
      Thinking and Talking about the Subject
      Grouping Arguments by Common Topics
   Memory and Organization: Preparation Outlines versus  Speaking Outlines
      Using Notes
      Additional Memory Aids
   Since You Asked . . .
      Memory and Speech Anxiety
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice

CHAPTER 10 DELIVERY DECISIONS
   The Dominance of Delivery
   The Persuasive Persona
      Demonstrating Attitude through Dress
      Demonstrating Attitude through Voice
      Demonstrating Attitude through Body Action
   A Word about Delivery Style
   Since You Asked  . . . 
   Climate Control
      Physical Context
      Time
      Space
   The Visual Aid Decision
      Presentation Software
         Managing Data
         Presentation Choices
      Presentation Guidelines
      When to Use Visual Aids
         What Can Go Wrong: A Word of Caution
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Speech Delivery Checklist

Part Five Beyond the Speech: Adaptation and Analysis

CHAPTER 11 ADAPTING THE PERSUASIVE SPEECH
   Speeches of Advocacy
      Social or Political Advocacy
      Sales Persuasion
         Sales as Dialectic
         Considering Form
         The Elevator Pitch
      Informal Debate
         The Public Deliberation Option
         Is There Value in Debate?
         A “Culture of Debate”
            Establishing Format
            Isolate the Proposition
            Define the Terms of the Proposition
            Determine Affirmative and Negative Positions
            Rebuttal
   Speeches of Interpretation, Accusation, and Defense
      Social Commentary
      Legal Persuasion
   Since You Asked . . .
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice

CHAPTER 12 ASSESSING SPEECH EFFECTIVENESS
   Listening to Persuasion
      Why Is This Person Speaking?
      Recognize and Evaluate the Speaker’s Reasons
      Recognize and Analyze Emotional Appeals
   Evaluating Ethics
   Framing and Phrasing a Useful Critique
      How to Critique
   Since You Asked . . .
   What Makes a Good Speech?
   In Summary
   Theory into Practice
   Critique for a Generic Persuasive Speech
   Critique for a Fact or Value Persuasive Speech
   Critique for a Policy Persuasive Speech

Glossary

Index

Barbara Breaden

Educated in Rhetoric and Communication at the University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana) and the University of Oregon, Barbara Breaden has taught on-site and online Speech and Communication Studies courses in higher education for more than thirty-five years. As part of the Northwest Forensics Conference, Breaden founded a successful speech and debate team at Lane Community College in Eugene, Oregon. Aside from rhetorical theory, rhetorical criticism, and free speech issues, her research interests have included the nature of attention and memory in listening and critical thinking.

Barbara Breaden’s book is an excellent blend of theory and practice. She uses engaging examples and challenging exercises to illustrate and reinforce key principles. Speaking to Persuade is more than a “how to” manual. Not only does it detail ways to become a successful practitioner, it underscores the importance of persuasive discourse in a democracy. This thoughtful and pragmatic approach to persuasion is a must-read for anyone interested in communication.
Dr. Molly A. Mayhead
Western Oregon University

Barbara Breaden has written a scholarly, accessible, and timely introduction to ethical persuasive speaking.  Breaden grounds her approach in the traditional canons of rhetoric while including up-to-date social scientific research and current theory development in persuasion.  In this era of "alternative facts" and "fake news," it seems increasingly important for students to learn how to develop and deliver sound ethical persuasive messages.  Speaking to Persuade is a huge step in the right direction!
Jay Frasier
Lane Community College

Given that we all seek to persuade, Speaking to Persuade makes the argument we should speak to persuade. From its earliest roots in antiquity up to the current moment, from abstract theory to the rough and tumble of the real world, persuasive speaking is the means to the ends we all desire: to be heard, to move hearts and minds, and to change the world.
Dana Rubin
Leadership Communication Strategist and Founder, VizibilityLab, New York, NY

Barbara Breaden’s Speaking to Persuade is the book instructors should assign for students in 100-200 level persuasion courses offered by community colleges, small liberal arts colleges, and STEM courses concerned with persuasion. The book joins 2000 years of research on the theory of persuasion to the development of persuasive skills.  Speaking to Persuade is a well-written, approachable, and practical introduction to the art and science of persuasive presentations.
David A. Frank, Ph.D., Professor of Rhetoric
Clark Honors College, University of Oregon 

If you have any intention of going into consulting, sales, or any field where you may have to get people to follow your lead, Speaking to Persuade is a terrific resource.
Steven Bernard Zwickel
University of Wisconsin-Madison College of Engineering

Related ISBN's: 9781524984021, 9781524953317

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