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State Crimes Around the World: A Treatise in the Sociology of State Deviance

Author(s): Obi N. I. Ebbe

Edition: 1

Copyright: 2016

Pages: 354

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List of Tables
Preface
Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Operational Definition of State Crime and the Criminology of State Crime 
• The Nature of the State 
• Why Study State Crime 
• Contemporary Scholars’ View of State Crime 
• The Composition of the State and Definition of State Crime
• Why Traditional Sociology and Criminology Ignored State Crime
• Criminology of State Crime 
• Theories of State Crime 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 2 The Building Blocks of Eighteenth to Twenty-First Centuries’ State Crimes 
• Introduction: The End of the Dark Ages and Its Aftermath 
• Crimes of Medieval Roman Emperors as Stare Decisis of State Crimes of Modern Times 
• The Roots of Modern State Crimes 
• Review Questions
• Notes

Chapter 3 Crimes of Colonization
• Remote Causes of Colonization 
• The Process of Colonization 
• The Building of a Totalitarian Unitary Government
• Monetary System and Migration 
• Colonial Exploitation of Their Dependencies 
• The Granting of Independence to Former Colonial Dependencies 
• Emergence of Peonage and Slavery Trade 
• Looting of Treasuries of Colonial Dependencies 
• Neocolonialism and Instigation of Civil Wars 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 4 State Terrorism 
• Definition 
• State Terrorism in Ancient and Medieval Times
• Terrorism in the twentieth Century 
• Theories of State Terrorism 
• Domestic/National State Terrorism 
• Political Party Terrorism
• International State Terrorism 
• State-Sponsored Terrorism 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 5 State Genocide and War Crimes 
• Definition 
• Genocide in Ancient and Medieval Times 
• Genocide in Medieval Times 
• The Persecution of Christians by Arab Islamic Caliphates 
• Medieval Christian and Cather Heresy 
• State Genocides in Modern Times 
• Colonization Genocides 
◉ Africa 
◉ Asia 
◉ North America 
◉ South America 
◉ Colonization Genocides in West Indies 
• Ideological Genocide 
◉ Ethnic Cleansing Genocides 
• War Crimes 
• Persons Indicted of War Crimes Since WWII 
• War of Aggression 
• Attack on Refugees 
• Human Right Violations 
• Controlling State Genocide 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 6 Crimes of Dictatorships and Camouflaged Democracies 
• Introduction 
• Definition 
◉ Inherited Traditional Dictatorship 
◉ Camouflaged Democracies 11
◉ Military Dictatorship 
◉ Ideological Dictatorship 
• Characteristics of all Dictatorships 
◉ Single Individual Power Base 
◉ Formal Security Guards 
◉ Informal Secret Service 
• Absence of Multi-part System or No Political Party 
◉ Absence of Representative Legislature 
◉ Suspension of the Constitution 
◉ Absence of Independent Judiciary 
◉ Absence of Freedom of the Press 
◉ Control of National Police Force 
◉ Absence of Due Process of Law 
◉ Absence of the Rule of Law 
◉ Government by Violence 
◉ Negation of Intellectuals and Professionals 
◉ High Unemployment and Discrimination 
◉ Head of State for Life 
◉ Looting of State Treasury 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 7 State Crimes of Government
• The Emergence of the State 
• Crimes of Law Enforcement Agencies 
• Crimes of Law Enforcement in Mexico, Venezuela, Chile, and Argentina
• State Crimes of Government in Africa 
• Crimes of Government Omission in Politics, Business, and Professions 
• State Negligence 
• Civil Service Pilferage 
• Review Questions 
• Notes 

Chapter 8 Depraved-Heart Murder by Government
• What Is Murder? 
• Definition of Murder by Government 
• Reasons Why Governments Murder Their Subjects 
• Mass Murder by Government 
◉ Assassination of Political Opponents 
◉ Government Death Squads 
• Killing Civilians in Protest and War 
• Soviet Russia Invasion of Poland and Katyn Massacre 
• Review Questions 

Chapter 9 State Negligence and Environmental Pollution Deviances: Domestic and International
• States Violation of Fundamental Human Rights of Its Citizens 
• State Negation of Universal Healthcare 
• The Prison Industry and Prison Inmate Annihilation 
• Nuclear, Industrial Waste, and Garbage Dumping 
• Export of Inferior Goods 
• Differential Law Enforcement of Environmental Laws 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 10 State-Organized Crime: Political-Criminal Nexus 
• Defiition of Organized Crime 
• Definition of State-Organized Crime 
• Causes of State-Organized Crime 
• Head of State-Initiated Organized Crime With Security Forces 
• Second Example of Head of State—Initiated Organized Crime 
• Head of State’s Selective Alliance With Gangsters 
• The Nigerian Case 
◉ Strategies of Nigerian’s Predatory State 
◉ The Multiethnic Factor in Nigerian State-Organized Crime 
• Military-Politicians and State-Organized Crime 
• Federal Agencies Graft Gangs 
• State-Organized Crime in Legitimate Enterprises 
• Sociocultural Factors in Nigerian State-Organized Crime 
◉ External Forces in Nigerian State-Organized Crime 
◉ Patterns of Exchange Between the Politicians and the “419” Syndicates 
◉ Perpetuating Nigerian Military Dictatorship State-Organized Crime 
• Powerful Organized Crime Groups and a Weak Government 
◉ Russia State-Organized Crime 
• The Dialectics of Mexican State-Organized Crime 
• Open-Ended State-Organized Crime 
◉ Kickbacks: Political-Criminal Nexus 
• Review Questions 
• Notes

Chapter 11 Mechanisms for Controlling State Crimes and Conclusion 
• The UN International Humanitarian Law 
• The Various UN Conventions 
• Geneva Conventions 
• The Emergence of the Geneva Convention 
◉ Protocol I 3
◉ Protocol II 
• Other UN Conventions to Control State Deviances 
◉ The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 
◉ International Convention for the Protection of All Persons From Enforced Disappearance 
◉ UN Convention Against Torture 
◉ Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others
◉ International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid 
◉ Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons 
◉ UN Convention Against Corruption 
◉ Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 
◉ United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime 
• UN Realization of Possibilities of State Crimes and Deviances 
• Preamble to the Emergence of the UN Courts to Control State Deviances and Crime 
• International Court of Justice 
• International Military Tribunal 
◉ The Post-World War II Military Trials: Nuremberg 
◉ The Criminals of the Nuremberg Trial 
◉ Crimes Charged at the Nuremburg Trial 
• International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) 
◉ Judges of the Tokyo Tribunal 
◉ Crimes Charged at Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal 
◉ The Japanese Defense 
◉ Judgment and Sentencing 
◉ Sentencing 
• International Criminal Tribunals 
◉ Preamble to the Emergence of ICT 
◉ Remote Causes of Yugoslavia Conflict 
• International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 
◉ ICTY Organizational Structure
◉ Chambers 
◉ Judges of the ICTY 5
◉ Prosecutor 
◉ Registry 
◉ Detention Center for the ICTY 
◉ Indictments 
◉ Crimes Charged at the ICTY 
◉ Judgment and Sentencing 
◉ Th e Relevance of ICTY 
• International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 
• The Immediate Cause of Rwandan Genocide 8
• The Emergence of ICTR for RWANDA 
◉ Purpose of ICTR 
◉ Th e Structure of ICTR 
◉ Office of the Prosecutor 
◉ The Registry 
◉ Headquarters of the ICTR 
◉ Jurisdiction of ICTR 
◉ Defendants at ICTR 
◉ ICTR Detention and Prison System 
◉ The Relevance of ICTR 
• The Emergence of the ICC 
◉ Introduction 22
◉ Signatories to ICC 
◉ Th e Purpose, Statute, and Ratification of ICC 
◉ Jurisdiction of the ICC 
• UN Special Court for Sierra Leone 
◉ Jurisdiction 
◉ The Structure of the SCSL 
◉ Chambers 
◉ Punishment 
• The Victimology and Future of State Crime 
• Discussion and Conclusion 
• Review Questions 
• Notes 

References 

Index

Obi N. I. Ebbe

Related ISBN's: 9781465279583, 9781792469015, 9781792487781

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