**Chapter 1. The Basics**

I Hate Math

How to Combat the I Hate Math Idea

Numbers, Numbers, Numbers

**Chapter 2. The Research Process, Methods, and Data**

Research

Methods

Hypothesis

Data

**Chapter 3. Frequencies, Proportions, Percentages, Ratios, Rates, and Cross-Tabulation**

Frequency Distributions

Proportions and Percentages

Ratios

Rates

Rate of Change

Cross-Tabulations

**Chapter 4. Central Tendency**

What is Central Tendency?

Mode

Median

Mean

Choosing the Mode, Median, or Mean

Weighted Mean

**Chapter 5. Measures of Variability**

What is Variability?

Range

Interquartile Range

Deviation

Variance

Standard Deviation

A Note on Samples and Populations

Index of Qualitative Variation

**Chapter 6. Probability**

What is a Probability?

Calculating a Probability

Converse Rule

Addition Rule

Multiplication Rule

Probability Distribution

**Chapter 7. Samples and Populations**

Samples versus Populations

Sampling Error

Symbols, Symbols, Symbols

Sampling Distribution of the Mean

Standard Error of the Mean

Confidence Intervals

Confidence Intervals with Proportions

**Chapter 8. The Normal Curve**

What is Normal Curve?

How to Read Appendix C

Appendix C Practice

Z-Scores

**Chapter 9. The t-Tests**

The t-Test

The t-Test for Independent Samples

Null and Research Hypotheses

Visualizing the t-Test

Type I and Type II Errors

Critical and Calculated Values

One-Tailed t-Test

One-Tailed t-Test Calculated

Two-Tailed t-Test Calculated

Effect Size

Adjustment for Unequal Variances

Proportions and t-Tests

**Chapter 10. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA )**

What Is the Difference Between a t-Test and ANOVA?

How to Calculate an ANOVA

Example Problem for ANOVA

Is the F Calculated Significant?

Post Hoc Analyses

**Chapter 11. The Chi-Square (Nonparametric Statistics )**

Chi-Square Tests

One-Way Chi-Square Test

Traditional Technique to Solve a Chi-Square

Table Technique to Solve a Chi-Square

Is the Chi-Square Significant?

The Two-Way Chi-Square Test

Traditional Technique to Solve a Chi-Square

Table Technique to Solve a Chi-Square

Is the Chi-Square Significant?

Effect Size for the Two-Way Chi-Square

**Chapter 12. Correlation**

What Is a Correlation?

Visualizing Correlations

Interpretation of a Correlation

How to Calculate a Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient

Example Problem for a Correlation

Is the Correlation Significant?

Partial Correlation

Example of a Partial Correlation

Is the Partial Correlation Significant?

**Chapter 13. Simple Linear Regression Analysis**

What Is a Simple Linear Regression?

Visualizing a Regression

Simple Linear Regression Calculation

Calculating a Simple Linear Regression from Scratch

Appendix A – Math Touchup

Appendix B – List of Formulas

Appendix C – The Percentage of the Area Under the Normal Curve

Appendix D – Critical Values of t

Appendix E – Critical Values of F

Appendix F – q (The Studentized Range Statistic at .05 and .01 (α ) Levels of Significance )

Appendix G – Critical Values of Chi-Square (χ2 )

Appendix H – Critical Values for Pearson’s Correlation (r )

References