# Thermo-Fluid Engineering I

**Author(s):**
Michael
Pegg
,
Jan
Haelssig

**Edition:
**
1

**Copyright:
**
2012

**Pages:
**
336

**Edition:
**
1

**Copyright:
**
2012

**Pages:
**
336

## $63.67

### Ebook

## $34.73

Although there are many excellent introductory and advanced textbooks on thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, there are very few that deal with both topics. Of those that address both subjects, they tend to be divided into multiple parts that deal with thermodynamics and fluid mechanics separately.

Hence, ** Thermo-Fluid Engineering I**, a course package specifically for use in teaching this introductory course—ENGI 2102: Thermo-Fluid Engineering I. The text is organized so as to clearly demonstrate commonalities between thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. Although the course package was specifically developed for ENGI 2102, it could potentially also be used for other combined introductory courses in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

*Preface *

**Chapter 1: Introduction to the Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Fluids**

1.1 Systems and Control Volumes

1.2 Properties of a System

1.3 Density and Specific Gravity

1.4 Classification of Fluid Flows

1.5 Viscosity

1.6 Surface Tension and Capillary Effects

1.7 Problems

**Chapter 2: Fluid Statics 2.1 Pressure**

2.2 Pressure-Elevation Relationships

2.2.1 Constant Density

2.2.2 Isothermal, Perfect Gas

2.2.3 Isentropic, Perfect Gas

2.3 Manometers

2.4 Buoyancy and Stability

2.5 Hydrostatic Forces of Submerged Surfaces

2.6 Tank Failures

2.7 Problems

**Chapter 3: Work and Heat **

3.1 Forms of Energy

3.1.1 Internal Energy

3.1.2 Kinetic Energy

3.1.3 Potential Energy

3.1.4 Mechanical Energy

3.1.5 Nuclear Energy

3.2 Energy Transfer3.3 Mechanical Forms of Work

3.3.1 Shaft Work

3.3.2 Spring Work

3.3.3 Non-Mechanical Forms of Work

3.4 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

3.5 Problems

**Chapter 4: Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids**

4.1 The P-v-T Surface

4.1.1. The P-v Diagram

4.1.2. The T-v Diagram

4.1.3. The P-T Diagram

4.2 Property Tables and Charts

4.3 The Ideal Gas Equation of State

4.4 Methods for Nonideal Gases

4.4.1 Cubic Equations of State

4.4.2 Generalized Compressibility Charts

4.5 Problems

**Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Non-Flow Processes**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Specific Heats

5.3 Non-Flow Processes

5.3.1 The Constant-Temperature Process

5.3.2 The Constant-Volume Process

5.3.3 The Constant-Pressure Process

5.3.4 The Adiabatic Process

5.3.5 The Polytropic Process

5.4 Power Cycles

5.4.1 The Air-Standard Cycle

5.4.2 The Otto Cycle

5.4.3 The Diesel Cycle

5.5 Problems

**Chapter 6: Flow Processes **

6.1 The Continuity and Steady-Flow Energy Equations

6.2 Bernoulli’s Equation

6.3 Torricelli’s Equation

6.4 Application of Bernoulli’s Equation to Flow Measurement

6.4.1 The Pitot Tube

6.4.2 The Pitot-Static Tube

6.4.3 The Venturi Meter

6.4.4 The Orifice Meter

6.4.5 Nozzles

6.5 Engineering Applications of the Steady-Flow Energy Equation

6.5.1 Boiler and Condenser Systems

6.5.2 Turbo-Machinery

6.6 Problems

**Chapter 7: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics **

7.1 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

7.1.1 Thermodynamic Spontaneity

7.1.2 Equivalence of the Kelvin and Clausius Statements

7.2 Reversible vs. Irreversible Processes

7.3 Heat Engines

7.4 The Carnot Cycle

7.5 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

7.6 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

7.7 Definition of Entropy

7.7.1 Mathematical Expression of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

7.7.2 The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy

7.8 Entropy Changes of Pure Substances

7.8.1 Property Diagrams (T-s and h-s)

7.8.2 The Tds Relations

7.8.3 Entropy Changes of Incompressible Substances

7.8.4 Entropy Changes of Ideal Gases

7.9 Reversible Steady-Flow Work

7.10 Entropy Balances

7.10.1 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems

7.10.2 Entropy Balance for Open Systems

7.11 Second Law Efficiencies

7.11.1 Isentropic Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices

7.11.2 Second Law Efficiency

7.11.3 Lost Work

7.12 Problems

**Chapter 8: Vapour Power and Refrigeration Cycles**

8.1 Vapour Power Cycles

8.1.1 The Rankine Cycle

8.1.2 Improving the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle

8.2 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycles

8.3 Problems

**Chapter 9: Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems **

9.1 Momentum

9.2 The Momentum Balance

9.3 Steady-Flow Applications of the Momentum Balance

**Chapter 10: Internal Flow **

10.1 Laminar Flow in Pipes

10.2 The Engineering Bernoulli Equation

10.3 The Fanning Friction Factor

10.4 Pipe Flow Problems

10.4.1 Unknown Driving Force

10.4.2 Unknown Flow Rate

10.4.3 Unknown Diameter

10.5 Pipe Flow Problems with Fittings

10.5.1 Unknown Driving Force

10.5.2 Unknown Flow Rate

10.5.3 Unknown Diameter

10.6 Non-circular Conduits

10.7 Problems

**Appendix A: Unit Conversions and Basic Engineering Calculations **

A.1 Units, Dimensions and Unit Conversions

A.2 Systems of Units

A.3 Force and Weight

A.4 Numerical Calculation and Estimation

A.5 Dimensional Homogeneity and Dimensionless Quantities

A.6 Linear Interpolation

A.7 Important Constants and Unit Conversion Factors

A.8 Problems

**Appendix B: Physical Property Tables**

B.1 Selected Physical Property Data

B.2 Properties of Common Solids

B.3 Properties of Common Gases at 1 atm

B.4 Properties of Common Liquids

B.5 Density Correlations for Liquids

B.6 Viscosity Correlations for Gases

B.7 Viscosity Correlations for Liquids

B.8 Heat Capacity Correlations for Gases

B.9 Heat Capacity Correlations for Liquids

B.10 Surface Tension Correlations for Common Liquids

**Appendix C: Tables and Charts for Internal Flow Calculations**

C.1 Dimensions of Standard Pipe

C.2 Standard Tube Gauges

**Appendix D: Steam Tables**

D.1 Saturated Steam Pressure Table

D.2 Saturated Steam Temperature Table

D.3 Superheated Steam Tables

D.4 Compressed Liquid Water Tables

**Appendix E: Miscellaneous Property Charts**

E.1 Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Steam

E.2 Enthalpy-Entropy (Mollier) Diagram for Steam

E.3 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Air

E.4 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Ammonia

E.5 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 22

E.6 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 134a

**Appendix F: Answers to Chapter Problems**

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Fluids

Chapter 2: Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Work and Heat

Chapter 4: Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids

Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Non-Flow Processes

Chapter 6: Flow Processes

Chapter 7: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 8: Vapour Power and Refrigeration Cycles

Chapter 10: Internal Flow

Appendix A: Unit Conversions and Basic Engineering Calculations

Although there are many excellent introductory and advanced textbooks on thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, there are very few that deal with both topics. Of those that address both subjects, they tend to be divided into multiple parts that deal with thermodynamics and fluid mechanics separately.

Hence, ** Thermo-Fluid Engineering I**, a course package specifically for use in teaching this introductory course—ENGI 2102: Thermo-Fluid Engineering I. The text is organized so as to clearly demonstrate commonalities between thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. Although the course package was specifically developed for ENGI 2102, it could potentially also be used for other combined introductory courses in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

*Preface *

**Chapter 1: Introduction to the Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Fluids**

1.1 Systems and Control Volumes

1.2 Properties of a System

1.3 Density and Specific Gravity

1.4 Classification of Fluid Flows

1.5 Viscosity

1.6 Surface Tension and Capillary Effects

1.7 Problems

**Chapter 2: Fluid Statics 2.1 Pressure**

2.2 Pressure-Elevation Relationships

2.2.1 Constant Density

2.2.2 Isothermal, Perfect Gas

2.2.3 Isentropic, Perfect Gas

2.3 Manometers

2.4 Buoyancy and Stability

2.5 Hydrostatic Forces of Submerged Surfaces

2.6 Tank Failures

2.7 Problems

**Chapter 3: Work and Heat **

3.1 Forms of Energy

3.1.1 Internal Energy

3.1.2 Kinetic Energy

3.1.3 Potential Energy

3.1.4 Mechanical Energy

3.1.5 Nuclear Energy

3.2 Energy Transfer3.3 Mechanical Forms of Work

3.3.1 Shaft Work

3.3.2 Spring Work

3.3.3 Non-Mechanical Forms of Work

3.4 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

3.5 Problems

**Chapter 4: Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids**

4.1 The P-v-T Surface

4.1.1. The P-v Diagram

4.1.2. The T-v Diagram

4.1.3. The P-T Diagram

4.2 Property Tables and Charts

4.3 The Ideal Gas Equation of State

4.4 Methods for Nonideal Gases

4.4.1 Cubic Equations of State

4.4.2 Generalized Compressibility Charts

4.5 Problems

**Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Non-Flow Processes**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Specific Heats

5.3 Non-Flow Processes

5.3.1 The Constant-Temperature Process

5.3.2 The Constant-Volume Process

5.3.3 The Constant-Pressure Process

5.3.4 The Adiabatic Process

5.3.5 The Polytropic Process

5.4 Power Cycles

5.4.1 The Air-Standard Cycle

5.4.2 The Otto Cycle

5.4.3 The Diesel Cycle

5.5 Problems

**Chapter 6: Flow Processes **

6.1 The Continuity and Steady-Flow Energy Equations

6.2 Bernoulli’s Equation

6.3 Torricelli’s Equation

6.4 Application of Bernoulli’s Equation to Flow Measurement

6.4.1 The Pitot Tube

6.4.2 The Pitot-Static Tube

6.4.3 The Venturi Meter

6.4.4 The Orifice Meter

6.4.5 Nozzles

6.5 Engineering Applications of the Steady-Flow Energy Equation

6.5.1 Boiler and Condenser Systems

6.5.2 Turbo-Machinery

6.6 Problems

**Chapter 7: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics **

7.1 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

7.1.1 Thermodynamic Spontaneity

7.1.2 Equivalence of the Kelvin and Clausius Statements

7.2 Reversible vs. Irreversible Processes

7.3 Heat Engines

7.4 The Carnot Cycle

7.5 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

7.6 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps

7.7 Definition of Entropy

7.7.1 Mathematical Expression of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

7.7.2 The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy

7.8 Entropy Changes of Pure Substances

7.8.1 Property Diagrams (T-s and h-s)

7.8.2 The Tds Relations

7.8.3 Entropy Changes of Incompressible Substances

7.8.4 Entropy Changes of Ideal Gases

7.9 Reversible Steady-Flow Work

7.10 Entropy Balances

7.10.1 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems

7.10.2 Entropy Balance for Open Systems

7.11 Second Law Efficiencies

7.11.1 Isentropic Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices

7.11.2 Second Law Efficiency

7.11.3 Lost Work

7.12 Problems

**Chapter 8: Vapour Power and Refrigeration Cycles**

8.1 Vapour Power Cycles

8.1.1 The Rankine Cycle

8.1.2 Improving the Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle

8.2 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycles

8.3 Problems

**Chapter 9: Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems **

9.1 Momentum

9.2 The Momentum Balance

9.3 Steady-Flow Applications of the Momentum Balance

**Chapter 10: Internal Flow **

10.1 Laminar Flow in Pipes

10.2 The Engineering Bernoulli Equation

10.3 The Fanning Friction Factor

10.4 Pipe Flow Problems

10.4.1 Unknown Driving Force

10.4.2 Unknown Flow Rate

10.4.3 Unknown Diameter

10.5 Pipe Flow Problems with Fittings

10.5.1 Unknown Driving Force

10.5.2 Unknown Flow Rate

10.5.3 Unknown Diameter

10.6 Non-circular Conduits

10.7 Problems

**Appendix A: Unit Conversions and Basic Engineering Calculations **

A.1 Units, Dimensions and Unit Conversions

A.2 Systems of Units

A.3 Force and Weight

A.4 Numerical Calculation and Estimation

A.5 Dimensional Homogeneity and Dimensionless Quantities

A.6 Linear Interpolation

A.7 Important Constants and Unit Conversion Factors

A.8 Problems

**Appendix B: Physical Property Tables**

B.1 Selected Physical Property Data

B.2 Properties of Common Solids

B.3 Properties of Common Gases at 1 atm

B.4 Properties of Common Liquids

B.5 Density Correlations for Liquids

B.6 Viscosity Correlations for Gases

B.7 Viscosity Correlations for Liquids

B.8 Heat Capacity Correlations for Gases

B.9 Heat Capacity Correlations for Liquids

B.10 Surface Tension Correlations for Common Liquids

**Appendix C: Tables and Charts for Internal Flow Calculations**

C.1 Dimensions of Standard Pipe

C.2 Standard Tube Gauges

**Appendix D: Steam Tables**

D.1 Saturated Steam Pressure Table

D.2 Saturated Steam Temperature Table

D.3 Superheated Steam Tables

D.4 Compressed Liquid Water Tables

**Appendix E: Miscellaneous Property Charts**

E.1 Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Steam

E.2 Enthalpy-Entropy (Mollier) Diagram for Steam

E.3 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Air

E.4 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Ammonia

E.5 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 22

E.6 Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram for Refrigerant 134a

**Appendix F: Answers to Chapter Problems**

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Fluids

Chapter 2: Fluid Statics

Chapter 3: Work and Heat

Chapter 4: Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids

Chapter 5: The First Law of Thermodynamics for Non-Flow Processes

Chapter 6: Flow Processes

Chapter 7: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 8: Vapour Power and Refrigeration Cycles

Chapter 10: Internal Flow

Appendix A: Unit Conversions and Basic Engineering Calculations