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The Tourism System

Author(s): Alastair M Morrison, Xinran You Lehto, Jonathon Day

Edition: 8

Copyright: 2018

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Tourism System: a set of interrelated parts working together toward shared outcomes and goals.

The Tourism System, under the guidance of a new authoring team, have made this new 8th edition more global in scope through examples, cases, and approximately 120 Quick Trips.  

The Tourism System:

  • has been revised with learners in mind; it is written in a much more student-friendly tone.
  • is visually appealing - the improved illustration program includes several new contributions from the authors themselves.
  • features expanded and enhanced Quick Trips illustrating important practical issues, applications of management concepts, or significant trends in tourism that engage the reader and stimulate class discussion.
  • includes new Quick Trips that have been more closely integrated with the contents of each chapter.

The Tourism System includes 17 chapters, divided among four part topics:

  1. Destination – chapters 1-6 better represent the new realities of destination management and give a greater emphasis on sustainable tourism and visitor experiences.
  2. Marketing – chapters 7-9 give a concise but comprehensive introduction to tourism marketing functions. Chapter 9, Tourism Products and Experience Development, is new to this edition.
  3. Demand – chapters 10-14 reflect rapidly changing aspects of contemporary visitor behavior including the changing role and impact of technology (mobile devices, websites, and virtual reality on traveler mobility, diaspora, and behavior). Chapter 11, Tourism Experience, is new.
  4. Travel – chapters 15-17 explore mobility and the organizations that facilitate travel through the Tourism System.

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

PART ONE DESTINATION: Planning, Developing, and Controlling Tourism

CHAPTER ONE The Tourism System and Destinations

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Let’s Explore the Tourism System

Why Use a Systems Approach for the Study of Tourism?

The Tourism System Model

Terminology

The Tourism Destination System

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Resources

CHAPTER TWO Tourism Impacts

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Sustainability and Tourism

Economic Impacts of Tourism

Tourism Changes Societies

Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Environmental Impacts of Tourism

Measuring the Impacts of Tourism

A System’s Response to Tourism Impacts

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

CHAPTER THREE Government Involvement, Tourism Policy, and Organizations

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Reasons for Government Involvement in Tourism

Government Roles in Tourism

Tourism Policy and Policy-Setting Process

Tourism Organizations

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

Additional Resources

CHAPTER FOUR Tourism Legislation and Regulation

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Government Role in Controlling Tourism

Reasons for Destination Legislation and Regulations

Destination Area Legislation and Regulations

Self-Regulation in Tourism

Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

CHAPTER FIVE Tourism Destination Planning

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Reasons for Tourism Destination Planning

Potential Barriers to Tourism Destination Planning

Purposes of Tourism Destination Planning

Framework for Tourism Destination Planning

Levels of Tourism Planning

Tourism Destination Planning Process

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

CHAPTER SIX Sustainable Tourism Development

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Building a Sustainable Future for Tourism

Categories of Tourism Developments

Tourism Planning and Tourism Development

Roles in Tourism Development

Analysis of Individual Project Development Opportunities

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

PART TWO MARKETING: Strategy, Planning, Branding, and Promotion

CHAPTER SEVEN Tourism Marketing

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

What Is Tourism Marketing?

Marketing Orientation

Understanding Your Consumer

The Marketing Toolbox

Branding In the Tourism System

Marketing Planning Process

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

CHAPTER EIGHT Tourism Promotion

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Promotions = Communications

Decoding the Message and Action

Goals and Types of Promotion

The Promotional Toolbox

Integrated Marketing Communication

Planning Promotions

Promotions Planning Process

DMOs and Tourism Promotion

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

CHAPTER NINE Tourism Products and Experience Development

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Products and Services

Tourism Products Are Unique

Experiences

The Elements of the Experience

The Product Toolbox

Product Development Planning Process

Product Renewal and the Product Life Cycle

Product/Market Portfolios

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

PART THREE DEMAND: Factors Influencing Visitors

CHAPTER TEN Tourism Motivation and Travel Benefits

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Fundamental Human Needs

Travel Need, Want, Motivation, and Benefit

Travel Motivation Theories

Travel Benefits

Destination Restorative Qualities

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Readings

CHAPTER ELEVEN Tourism Experience

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

What Is a Tourism Experience?

Aesthetics and Tourism Experience

Authenticity and Localness in Tourism Experience

Sense of Place

Flow in Visitor Experience

Experience Theming

Experience Cueing

Destination Activity Participation

Technology Mediated Tourism Experience

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Readings

CHAPTER TWELVE Travel Purchase

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Traveler Decision-Making

Theory of Planned Behavior

Theory of Consumption Values

The Traveler’s Buying Process

Travel Information and Decision Support

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Readings

CHAPTER THIRTEEN Forces Shaping Tourism

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

The Effects of Culture on Travel

The Effect of Time on Travel

The Effect of Sociodemographics on Tourism Demand

Life Cycle Effect

Traveler Psychographic Characteristics

Traveler Perceptions and Destination Image

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Readings

CHAPTER FOURTEEN Traveler Segments

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

The Business Travel Market

The Leisure Travel Market

Summary

Activities

References

Additional Readings

PART FOUR TRAVEL: Travel Flows, Distribution, and Transportation

CHAPTER FIFTEEN The Evolution of Travel and Travel Flows

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

The Evolution of Travel

Travel Flows

Travel Forecasts and Trends

Summary

Activities

References

CHAPTER SIXTEEN Travel Trade Intermediaries

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Tourism Intermediaries—A Marketing Perspective

Direct, Indirect, and Multichannel Distribution Channels

Distribution Mix Strategies

Integration and Classification of Channels

Travel Intermediaries

Travel Intermediaries: Travel Agencies

Summary

Activities

References

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Traveling—Transportation Modes and Carriers

Your Learning Destination

What You Need to Know

Breaking the Ice

Key Takeaway Points

Getting Around: Mobility in the Modern World

Getting There: Planes, Trains, and Automobiles

Planes and the Passenger Aviation System

Trains and Passenger Rail Systems

Automobiles and the Highway System

Taking “Home” with You When You Go

Rental Cars and Car Share

Buses and Motor Coaches

At the Destination

When Travel Is the Destination

Summary

Activities

Acronyms

References

Glossary

Index

Alastair M Morrison

Alastair is the CEO of Belle Tourism International Consulting, Ltd. (BTI) and a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. He serves as a Visiting Professor at the University of Greenwich in London and is Co-Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Tourism Cities. Alastair is a consultant to the Bandung Institute of Tourism (Indonesia) and Hubei University of Economics (China) on postgraduate studies and research.

Alastair is the author of five books in tourism marketing and development, and hospitality and travel marketing—The Tourism System, Marketing and Managing Tourism Destinations, Hospitality and Travel Marketing, Global Marketing of China Tourism, and Tourism: Bridges across Continents. He has contributed more than 150 articles to tourism and hospitality academic research journals as well.

Alastair received several teaching awards and honors at Purdue University, including the university-wide Murphy Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching. His name has been entered in Purdue’s Book of Great Teachers. In 1998, the International Society of Travel & Tourism Educators (ISTTE) selected him as the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions to tourism education. Alastair has been elected as a Fellow of the world’s most elite organization of tourism scholars, the International Academy for the Study of Tourism (IAST), and to the Hospitality and Tourism Management Academy.

Alastair has had a wide variety of experience in global tourism. He has provided marketing and development advice in Australia, Bahrain, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, China, Ghana, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica, Macao SAR, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Scotland, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, and Vietnam. Recently, he designed a training program in destination management for Indonesia and has developed and facilitated training programs on behalf of the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) for eight South Asian countries and the China-Tibet Tourism Bureau, European Union, the U.S. Agency for International Development, Swisscontact, and Destinations International.

Alastair is active in several major industry associations. He is a co-founder and has been the President and Past- President of the International Tourism Studies Association (ITSA). He has served as Chairman of the Travel & Tourism Research Association (TTRA)–Canada Chapter, Board member of the CenStates TTRA Chapter, Vice President of the International Society of Travel and Tourism Educators (ISTTE), and Chairman of Association of Travel Marketing Executives (ATME). He was awarded the distinction as one of the first recipients of the Certified Travel Marketing Executive (CTME) designation from ATME. He has designed and presented the Destination Marketing Planning, Travel Information & Research, International Tourism & Convention Marketing, and Communications and Technology in Destination Management courses for Destinations International as part of its Certified Destination Management Executive (CDME) Program.

Previously, Alastair was a Visiting Professor at Peking University and at the University of Strathclyde Business School, Scotland. He also served as the Queensland Tourist & Travel Corporation Visiting Lecturer at James Cook University in Queensland, Australia. He has taught tourism marketing and promotion at National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism Management (Taiwan), University of Monterrey (Mexico), Hong Kong University, IULM (Milan, Italy) and AILUN (Sardinia, Italy).

Prior to joining the Purdue faculty, Alastair worked in Canada as a management consultant in hospitality and tourism, most recently as President of The Economic Planning Group of Canada (EPG).

Xinran You Lehto

Xinran Y. Lehto is a Professor at the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University. She is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, and serves on the Editorial Boards of five other international academic journals. She is currently the President of the International Tourism Studies Association. Prior to her academic appointments, Dr. Lehto worked in the travel and tourism industry as a marketing officer for China National Tourism Administration (CNTA) and a planning executive for Chan Brothers Travel, Singapore.

Dr. Lehto is well-published. She has over one hundred research publications in refereed international journals including the top-rated Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management, and Journal of Travel Research. Dr. Lehto is the recipient of multiple Best Paper awards from various international conferences and Article of the Year awards from two refereed journals.

Dr. Lehto’s research expertise area is tourism marketing. Her research addresses how destinations can effectively market experience-based vacation products to unique segments such as family travelers. Much of her work is concerned with developing understanding of how visitors interact with a destination through leisure and hospitality experiences; what outcomes and benefits tourism provides; and how personal, interpersonal, and cultural factors influence destination experience design, marketing practices, and visitor satisfaction.

Dr. Lehto emphasizes the ramifications of her research to the travel and tourism sector. She disseminates her research in a wide variety of forums including international conferences and colloquia, refereed journal articles, technical reports, and public presentations. She has worked closely with community agencies to evaluate and develop programs and strategies related to tourism and leisure services.

Jonathon Day

Dr. Jonathon Day, an Associate Professor in Purdue’s School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, has over twenty-five years’ experience in tourism management. He is the founder and President of Placemark Solutions, Inc. An award-winning marketer, Dr. Day has worked with destination management organizations in Australia, New Zealand, and the Americas.

Dr. Day is committed to ensuring tourism is a force for good in the world. He is the author of “Introduction to Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Travel,” as well as over twenty-five peer-reviewed articles in journals including Tourism Analysis, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, Annals of Tourism Research, and International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. He currently chairs the Travel Care Code (travelcarecode.org), a network of academic and marketing organizations promoting responsible travel.

Dr. Day is active in several industry organizations. He is Chair of Tourism Innovation Partnership for Social Entrepreneurship, Chair of the Global Sustainable Tourism Council’s Communication and Membership Workgroup, and a member of the Executive of Tourism Education Futures Initiative. He is a past President of Travel & Tourism Marketing Association, past Board Member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association International (HSMAI), and a past Trustee of the HSMAI Foundation.

Dr. Day speaks regularly on destination management and sustainable tourism. He has conducted training in Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, New Zealand, and the United States. He has developed and facilitated training programs for the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the Global Sustainable Tourism Council, and Destinations International’s Certified Destination Management Executive (CDME) program.

Dr. Day’s interests focus on sustainable tourism, responsible travel, and strategic destination governance within the tourism system. He is interested in the role of business in solving grand challenges through corporate social responsibility programs and social entrepreneurship.

A well researched text, The Tourism System provides tourism students with a great introduction to the world’s largest industry and serves as a reference that they will keep coming back to - long after the class is over.
Jonathon Day, Purdue University

This edition of The Tourism System is as useful as the first was several years ago, as it focus on the main issues of the tourism sector, as well new ones that are constantly emerging. Cláudia RIbeiro de Almeida, Tourism Course Director, University of Algarve - ESGHT, Faro, Portugal

The Tourism System is very thorough and provides significant detail into the workings of the tourism system, from a local, national, and international scope. Jim Bennett, Senior Lecturer, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

 

Tourism is a major source of revenue for every state in the union. Indeed, a great many areas of the country are very strongly dependent on their tourist seasons. Tourism is big business and one that is constantly evolving and competitive for tourist dollars. Now in a completely updated and expanded seventh edition, "The Tourism System" by Robert Christie Mill (University of Denver) and Alastair M. Morrison (Belle Tourism International Consulting) is a 427 page textbook offering a complete course under one cover on successfully developing and marketing tourism. In particular, the chapters dedicated to tourism marketing strategies, planning, promotion, and distribution, as well as the section identifying the factors involved people's vacation making decisions, travel destination decisions, and travel purchases. Superbly organized and presented, "The Tourism System" is an ideal curriculum textbook and should be a part of every professional and academic library reference collection. 

 

Review in the October 2013 issue of Library Bookwatch, The Midwest Book Review

Quick Trip 1.1 Tourists vs. Travelers

Quick Trip 1.2 When Is a Train Not Just a Train?

Quick Trip 1.3 A Hotel Does Not Need to Be a Box

Quick Trip 1.4 The Best Cities to Shop until You Drop

Quick Trip 1.5 What Are the Friendliest Cities in the World?

Quick Trip 1.6 Best Destination Rankings

Quick Trip 1.7 The 10 As of Successful Destinations

Quick Trip 2.1 The Global Impact of Tourism

Quick Trip 2.2 The Impacts of Tourism on the United States

Quick Trip 2.3 Tourism Breaking Down Barriers

Quick Trip 2.4 Tourism Fighting Human Trafficking

Quick Trip 2.5 The Tourism Satellite Account Results for New Zealand

Quick Trip 2.6 Using Tourism as a Tool for Development

Quick Trip 2.7 Travel Care Code

Quick Trip 3.1 Policy Issues in Tourism in Belize

Quick Trip 3.2 Australia’s Tourism 2020

Quick Trip 3.3 Brand USA

Quick Trip 3.4 Destination Canada

Quick Trip 3.5 Tourism Organizations in Queensland

Quick Trip 3.6 Influential International Industry Organizations in Tourism

Quick Trip 4.1 The Impacts of Government Travel Advisories

Quick Trip 4.2 IUCN Protected Area Classification

Quick Trip 4.3 The Ontario Travel Industry Compensation Fund

Quick Trip 4.4 Destination Marketing Accreditation Program of Destinations International

Quick Trip 4.5 The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

Quick Trip 4.6 Regulating and Managing Inappropriate and Disruptive Visitor Behavior

Quick Trip 4.7 Criteria for the World Heritage List

Quick Trip 5.1 A Tourism Plan to Tackle Seasonality at Punta del Este

Quick Trip 5.2 Communicating the Kuala Lumpur Tourism Master Plan

Quick Trip 5.3 Baseline Analysis of Macao’s Tourism

Quick Trip 5.4 A Research-Based Approach to Curaçao’s Tourism Master Plan

Quick Trip 5.5 Goals and Strategies for Tourism in Minneapolis

Quick Trip 5.6 Key Performance Measures for Murray Region (Australia) Strategic Plan

Quick Trip 6.1 Eden Project Sustainability Policy

Quick Trip 6.2 Product Clubs: A Trend in Tourism Development

Quick Trip 6.3 Whistler Blackcomb Targets a Zero Footprint

Quick Trip 6.4 The “Battle” of Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

Quick Trip 6.5 Paradores de Turismo de España, S.A.—A Model of Sustainable Tourism

Quick Trip 6.6 Unsustainable Tourism: White Elephants on the Landscape

Quick Trip 7.1 Marketing Trends in Latin America

Quick Trip 7.2 Trapping the MICE: Business Events Are Very Important in Tourism Marketing

Quick Trip 7.3 Virtual and Augmented Reality in the Tourism System

Quick Trip 7.4 Destination Next and the Future of Destination Management Organizations

Quick Trip 7.5 Nova Scotia’s Strategic Planning for Tourism

Quick Trip 8.1 I AM OUTSTANDING: A Model for Effective Tourism Websites

Quick Trip 8.2 The New Influencers

Quick Trip 8.3 GoPro and Australia: Creating Compelling Promotional Messages

Quick Trip 8.4 Google and Tourism Marketing

Quick Trip 8.5 California YouTube Campaign and Dream365TV

Quick Trip 9.1 Canada Embraces Experiential Travel

Quick Trip 9.2 Creating Customer Experiences

Quick Trip 9.3 Hotels Meet the Needs of Millennials

Quick Trip 9.4 Experiential Tourists and “Agile Tours”

Quick Trip 9.5 Qualmark Is New Zealand Tourism’s Official Quality Assurance Program

Quick Trip 10.1 How Does Airbnb Motivate People to Stay with Them?

Quick Trip 10.2 Why Do People Take Family Reunion Trips?

Quick Trip 10.3 Why Volunteer While on Vacation?

Quick Trip 10.4 Sandals: All You Need Is Love

Quick Trip 10.5 The Historically Motivated Traveler

Quick Trip 10.6 Feel the Pull: Is a Great Place to Live a Good Place to Visit?

Quick Trip 10.7 Traveler Fascination with Islands

Quick Trip 10.8 Food as Vehicle in Creating Perceptual Distance In Tourism

Quick Trip 10.9 Smartphone Obsession on a Trip

Quick Trip 10.10 Have Time, Will Vacation

Quick Trip 10.11 Can People Be De-Motivated to Travel?

Quick Trip 11.1 Aesthetic Appreciation

Quick Trip 11.2 What Is in a Native Species?

Quick Trip 11.3 Flow on the Water

Quick Trip 11.4 Let’s Take a Ride with the Tour Guide to See the Real Thing

Quick Trip 11.5 Youth Hostels and Local Elements

Quick Trip 11.6 Do As the Romans Do or Not? Or Does It Matter?

Quick Trip 11.7 Mt. Hood Adventure Activity Development Scheme

Quick Trip 11.8 Bundling for a Good Experience for the Visitors

Quick Trip 12.1 Is It Safe to Visit?

Quick Trip 12.2 Your Friends Influence You More Than You Think

Quick Trip 12.3 Heuristic Cues and Hotel Review Information Trustworthiness

Quick Trip 12.4 Marketing Deception: A Tale as Old as Time

Quick Trip 12.5 Accommodating the Changing Traveler

Quick Trip 12.6 The Creative Industry as Travel Information Source: Where the Films Go, the Fans Follow

Quick Trip 12.7 No Apps, No Trips: Useful Travel Apps

Quick Trip 12.8 I Unlike You, Facebook Style

Quick Trip 12.9 Micro Information Moments

Quick Trip 12.10 Millennial Traveler Information Use

Quick Trip 13.1 National Culture Comparison: Australia versus China

Quick Trip 13.2 Culturally-Oriented Hotel Amenity and Service Design

Quick Trip 13.3 The United States Culture

Quick Trip 13.4 China’s Golden Travel Week

Quick Trip 13.5 Gender Differences in a Delightful Hotel Experience

Quick Trip 13.6 Perception of Distance

Quick Trip 13.7 Anxiety and Worry in the Age of Permanxiety

Quick Trip 13.8 Be Remembered

Quick Trip 13.9 Framing in Action: 100% Pure New Zealand Campaign

Quick Trip 14.1 Managed Travel: Travel and Expenses Management for Business Travelers

Quick Trip 14.2 The Bleisure Travelers

Quick Trip 14.3 Will Technology Reduce Business Travel?

Quick Trip 14.4 Mega-Events: The William and Kate Effect

Quick Trip 14.5 Singapore as a MICE Destination

Quick Trip 14.6 Meetings and Conventions Going Green

Quick Trip 14.7 The Traveling Men

Quick Trip 14.8 Travel on Top: What Do Affluent Travelers Want?

Quick Trip 14.9 Cycling as an Urban Tourism Experience: Bikers and Super Biking Trails

Quick Trip 14.10 Adventure Travel Experiences

Quick Trip 14.11 Changing Legacy

Quick Trip 14.12 Can Cultural Dissimilarity Always Be a Cultural Tourism Resource?

Quick Trip 14.13 An Ideal American Vacation Trip

Quick Trip 15.1 The Silk Road Heritage Corridors and UNWTO Silk Road Programme

Quick Trip 15.2 The Return of the Deck Chairs. Revival of UK Seaside Resorts

Quick Trip 15.3 The Digital Dilemma

Quick Trip 15.4 The New Golden Hordes? Chinese Tourists on Their National Holidays

Quick Trip 15.5 The Fastest-Growing Destinations in the World

Quick Trip 15.6 It’s My Bleisure. How to Confuse the Number-Counters

Quick Trip 16.1 Cruise Lines and Retail Travel Agencies: A Profitable Relationship

Quick Trip 16.2 Demystifying the Digital Marketplace for Hoteliers

Quick Trip 16.3 Taking the Oath for Travel Agencies: The American Society of Travel Agents Code of Ethics

Quick Trip 16.4 The Advantages of Tours and Packages According to the U.S. Tour Operators Association ( USTOA)

Quick Trip 16.5 TUI and Sustainable Supply Chain Management

Quick Trip 16.6 The Power of Travel Guidebooks

Quick Trip 16.7 New Intermediaries in the Sharing Economy

Quick Trip 17.1 The Future of Aviation

Quick Trip 17.2 High-Speed Rail in the United States and Canada

Quick Trip 17.3 One of a Kind

Quick Trip 17.4 The Largest Cruise Ships

Quick Trip 17.5 Space—The New Frontier for Tourism

Related ISBN's: 9781792420825, 9781792422072

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